Call for Paper - October 2015 Edition
IJCA solicits original research papers for the October 2015 Edition. Last date of manuscript submission is September 21, 2015. Read More

ZIG-ZAG PVD – A Nontraditional Approach

International Journal of Computer Applications
© 2010 by IJCA Journal
Number 7 - Article 2
Year of Publication: 2010

Dr.Y.Venkataramani and M.Padmaa. Article: ZIG-ZAG PVD A Nontraditional Approach. International Journal of Computer Applications 5(7):5–10, August 2010. Published By Foundation of Computer Science. BibTeX

	author = {Dr.Y.Venkataramani and M.Padmaa},
	title = {Article: ZIG-ZAG PVD  A Nontraditional Approach},
	journal = {International Journal of Computer Applications},
	year = {2010},
	volume = {5},
	number = {7},
	pages = {5--10},
	month = {August},
	note = {Published By Foundation of Computer Science}


Communication has to be secure in order to be kept private. The latest developments in the field of digital communication have made secret communication possible. Image hiding is a method in which a secret image is hidden in a cover image thereby forming a hybrid or stego image. In this paper, data hiding is performed by taking difference value of three and two neighbouring pixels by adapting Zig-Zag traversing scheme (ZZTS). This method enhances security and the quality of image in spite of high capacity of concealed information. Error correction mechanism using hamming code is applied to ensure reliable secret communication. The effectiveness of the proposed stego system has been estimated by computing Mean Square Error(MSE),Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), Mean Structural SIMilarity index(MSSIM) and Bits per colour Pixel. This paper also illustrates how security has been enhanced using this algorithm


  • Abbas Cheddad, Joan Condell, Kevin Curran, Paul Mc Kevitt, Digital image steganography: Survey and analysis of current methods Signal Processing 90 (2010) 727–752
  • R.Amirtharajan.R.Akila. P.Deepikachowdavarapu Article: A Comparative Analysis of Image Steganography. International Journal of Computer Applications 2(3):41–47, May 2010
  • W. Bender, D. Gruhl, N. Morimoto, A. Lu, Techniques for data hiding, IBM Syst. J. 35 (3&4) (1996) 313–336.
  • C.K. Chan, L.M. Chen, Hiding data in images by simple LSB substitution, Pattern Recognition 37 (3) (2004) 469–474.
  • Chang, C.C., Tseng, H.W., 2004. A steganographic method for digital images using side match. Pattern Recognition Letter 25 (September), 1431–1437.
  • Chang, C.C., Hsiao, J.Y., Chan, C.S., 2003. Finding optimal least-significant-bit substitution in image hiding by dynamic programming strategy. Pattern Recognition 36 (July), 1583–1595.
  • Fridrich, J., Goljan, M., Du, R., 2001. Reliable detection of LSB steganography in color and grayscale images. In: Proceedings of ACM Workshop on Multimedia and Security, pp. 27–30.
  • S. Katzenbeisser, F.A.P. Petitcolas, Information Hiding Techniques for Steganography and Digital Watermarking, Artech House, Norwood, MA, 2000.
  • Ker, A.D., 2004. Quantitative evaluation of pairs and RS steganalysis. In: Proceedings of the SPIE Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents, vol. 5306, pp. 83–97.
  • Liao, Z., Huang, Y., Li, C., 2007. Research on data hiding capacity. International Journal of Network Security 5 (September), 140–144.
  • Lin, C.C., Tsai, W.H., 2004. Secret image sharing with steganography and authentication. The Journal of Systems and Software 73 (November), 405–414.
  • Lou, D.C., Liu, J.L., 2002. Steganographic method for secure communications. Computers and Security 21 (October), 449–460.
  • F.A.P. Petitcolas, R.J. Anderson, M.G. Kuhn, Information hiding—a survey, Proc. IEEE 87 (7) (1999) 1062–1078.
  • C.C. Thien, J.C. Lin, A simple and high-hiding capacity method for hiding digit-by-digit data in images based on modulus function, Pattern Recognition 36 (11) (2003) 2875–2881.
  • C.M. Wang, N.I. Wu, C.S. Tsai, M.S. Hwang, A high quality steganography method with pixel-value differencing and modulus function, J. Syst. Software 81 (1) (2008) 150–158.
  • R.Z. Wang, C.F. Lin, J.C. Lin, Image hiding by optimal LSB substitution and genetic algorithm, Pattern Recognition 34 (3) (2000) 671–683.
  • Wang, S.J., 2005. Steganography of capacity required using modulo operator for embedding secret image. Applied Mathematics and Computation 164 (May 2005), 99–116.
  • Wang, R.Z., Lin, C.F., Lin, J.C., 2001. Image hiding by optimal LSB substitution and genetic algorithm. Pattern Recognition 34 (March), 671–683.
  • Westfeld Space filling curves in steganalysis in E.J Delp III & P.W. Wong(Eds), Security, steganography and watermarking of multimedia contents VII SPIE 5681, (2005) 28-37
  • Wen-Jan Chen, Chin-Chen Chang, T. Hoang Ngan Le, High Payload steganography mechanism using hybrid edge detector. Expert Systems with Applications 37 (2010) 3292–3301
  • Wu, N.I., Hwang, M.S., 2007. Data hiding: current status and key issues. International Journal of Network Security 4 (January), 1–9.
  • Wu, D.C., Tsai, W.H., 2003. A steganographic method for images by pixel-value differencing. Pattern Recognition Letters 24 (June), 1613–1626.
  • Wu, H.C., Wu, N.I., Tsai, C.S., Hwang, M.S., 2005. Image steganographic scheme based on pixel-value differencing and LSB replacement methods. IEE Proceedings – Vision Image and Signal Processing 152 (October), 611–615.
  • Young-Ran Park, Hyun-Ho Kang, Sang-Uk Shin, and Ki-Ryong Kwon, An Image Steganography Using Pixel Characteristics Y. Hao et al. (Eds.): CIS 2005, Part II, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg LNAI 3802, (2005) 581– 588.
  • Yuan-Hui Yu , Chin-Chen Chang, Iuon-Chang Lin, A new steganographic method for color and grayscale image hiding Computer Vision and Image Understanding 107 (2007) 183–194
  • Zhou Wang, Alan Conrad Bovik, Hamid Rahim Sheikh, Eero P. Simoncelli, Image Quality Assessment: From Error Visibility to Structural Similarity, IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 13(4) (2004) 600-612.