**January 20, 2017**. Read More

10.5120/8142-1867 |

Gyanesh Shrivastava, Sanjeev Karmakar, Manoj Kumar Kowar and Pulak Guhathakurta. Article: Application of Artificial Neural Networks in Weather Forecasting: A Comprehensive Literature Review. *International Journal of Computer Applications* 51(18):17-29, August 2012. Full text available. BibTeX

@article{key:article, author = {Gyanesh Shrivastava and Sanjeev Karmakar and Manoj Kumar Kowar and Pulak Guhathakurta}, title = {Article: Application of Artificial Neural Networks in Weather Forecasting: A Comprehensive Literature Review}, journal = {International Journal of Computer Applications}, year = {2012}, volume = {51}, number = {18}, pages = {17-29}, month = {August}, note = {Full text available} }

### Abstract

To recognize application of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in weather forecasting, especially in rainfall forecasting a comprehensive literature review from 1923 to 2012 is done and presented in this paper. And it is found that architectures of ANN such as BPN, RBFN is best established to be forecast chaotic behavior and have efficient enough to forecast monsoon rainfall as well as other weather parameter prediction phenomenon over the smaller geographical region.

### References

- Walker, G. T. , 1923, "Correlation in Seasonal Variations of Weather, III. A Preliminary Study of World Weather". Mem. India Meteorol. Dep. , XXIV, 75–131.
- Walker, G. T. , 1924, "Correlation in Seasonal Variations of Weather, IV. A Further Study of World Weather". Mem. India Meteorol. Dep. , XXIV, 275– 332.
- Gowariker, V. , Thapliyal, V. , Sarker, R. P. , Mandal, G. S. and Sikka, D. R. , 1989, "Parametric and Power Regression Models: New Approach to Long Range Forecasting of Monsoon Rainfall in India". Mausam, 40, 115– 122.
- Gowariker, V. , Thapliyal, V. , Kulshrestha, S. M. , Mandal, G. S. , Sen Roy, N. , and Sikka, D. R. , 1991, "A Power Regression Model for Long Range Forecast of Southwest Monsoon Rainfall over India". Mausam, 42, 125–130.
- Thapliyal, V. , and Kulshrestha, S. M. , 1992, "Recent Models for Long Range Forecasting of Southwest Monsoon Rainfall over India". Mausam, 43, 239–248.
- Thapliyal, V. , 1997, "Preliminary and Final Long Range Forecasts for Seasonal Monsoon Rainfall over India". J. Arid Environ. , 36, 385–403.
- Rajeevan, M. , Guhathakurta, P. and Thapliyal, V. , 2000, "New Models for Long Range Forecasting of Monsoon Rainfall over Northwest and Peninsular India". Meteorol. Atmos. Phys. , 73, 211–225.
- Rajeevan M. , 2001, "Prediction of Indian Summer Monsoon: Status, Problems and Prospects". Current Science, 81, 1451–1457.
- Thapliyal, V. , and Rajeevan, M. , 2003, "Updated Operational Models for Long-Range Forecasts of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall". Mausam, 54, 495–504.
- Rajeevan, M. , Pai, D. S. , Dikshit, S. K. , and Kelkar, R. R. , 2004, "IMD's New Operational Models for Long-Range Forecast of Southwest Monsoon Rainfall over India and Their Verification for 2003", Current Science, 86 (3), 422-431.
- Guhathakurta, P. , 2000, "New Models for Long Range Forecasts of Summer Monsoon Rainfall over North West and Peninsular India", Meteor. & Atomos. Phys. ,73 (3), 211-255.
- Guhathakurta, P. , Rajeevan, M. , and Thapliyal, V. , 1999, "Long Range Forecasting Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall by Hybrid Principal Component Neural Network Model", Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, Springer-Verlag, Austria.
- Parthasarathy, B. , Rupa Kumar, K. , and Munot, A. A. , 1991, "Evidence of Secular Variations in Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall Circulation Relationships". J. Climate, 4, 927–938.
- Hastenrath, S. , and Greischar, L. , 1993, "Changing Predictability of Indian Monsoon Rainfall Anomalies". Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Earth Planet. Sci. ), 102, 35–47.
- Guhathakurta P. , (2006), "Long-Range Monsoon Rainfall Prediction of 2005 for the Districts and Sub-Division Kerala with Artificial Neural Network", Current Science, 90(6), pp-773-779.
- Krishnamurthy, V. , and Kinter, J. L. , 2002, "The Indian Monsoon and its Relation to Global Climate Variability". Global Climate – Current Research and Uncertainties in the Climate System (eds Rodo, X. and Comin, F. A. ), 186–236.
- Krishnamurthy, V. , and Kirtman, B. P. , 2003, "Variability of the Indian Ocean: Relation to Monsoon and ENSO". Q. J. R. " Meteorol. Soc. , 129, 1623–1646
- Sahai, A. K. , Grimm, A. M. , Satyan. V. and Pant, G. B. , 2002, "Prospects of Prediction of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall using Global SST Anomalies". IITM Research Report No. RR-093.
- Guhathakurta, P. , 1999, "Long Range Forecasting Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall By Principle Component Neural Network Model", Meteor. & Atomos. Phys. , 71, 255-266.
- Guhathakurta, P. , 1998, "A Hybrid Neural Network Model for Long Range Prediction of All India Summer Monsoon Rainfall", Proceedings of WMO international workshop on dynamical extended range forecasting, Toulouse, France, November 17-21, 1997, PWPR No. 11, WMO/TD. 881, pp 157-161.
- Basu Sujit & Andharia H I, 1992, "The Chaotic time series of Indian Monsoon rainfall and its prediction", Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. , Vol. 101, No. 1, pp 27-34.
- Chow T. W. S. and Cho S. Y. , 1997, "Development of a Recurrent Sigma-Pi Neural Network Rainfall Forecasting System in Hong Kong", Springer-Verlag, pp. 66-75.
- Lee Sunyoung, Cho Sungzoon, Wong Patrick M. , 1998, "Rainfall Prediction Using Artificial Neural Networks", Journal of Geographic Information and Decision Analysis, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 233 – 242.
- Hsieh, W. H. , and Tang, B. , 1998, "Applying Neural Network Models to Prediction and Analysis in Meteorology and Oceanography". Bull. Amer. Met. Soc. , 79, 855-1870.
- Dawson Christian W. , Wilby Robert, "An artificial neural network approach to rainfall runoff modeling", 1998, Hydrological Sciences—Journal, 43(1), pp. 47-66.
- Guhathakurta1 P. , Rajeevan2 M. , and Thapliyal2 V. , 1999, "Long Range Forecasting Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall by a Hybrid Principal Component Neural Network Model", Meteorol. Atmos. Phys. , 71, pp. 255-266.
- Ricardo, M. , Trigo, Jean, P. , Palutikof, 1999, "Simulation of Daily Temperatures for Climate Change Scenarios over Portugal: A Neural Network Model Approach", University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ, United Kingdom, climate research (Clim. , Res. ), 13, 45–59, 1999.
- Jones, C. , Peterson, P. , 1999, "A New Method for Deriving Ocean Surface Specific Humidity and Air Temperature: An Artificial Neural Network Approach", J. Applied Meteorology, American Meteorological Society, 38, 1229-1245.
- Guhathakurta, P. , 1999, "A Short Term Prediction Model for Surface Ozone At Pune: Neural Network Approach", Vayu mandal, Special issue on Asian monsoon and pollution over the monsoon environment, 29(1-4), 355-358.
- Guhathakurta, P. , 1999, "A Neural Network Model for Short Term Prediction of Surface Ozone at Pune", Mausam, 50(1), 91-98.
- Toth E. *, Brath A. , Montanari A. , 2000, "Comparison of short-term rainfall prediction models for real-time flood forecasting", Journal of Hydrology, Elsevier, 239, pp. 132-147.
- Luk Kin C, Ball J. E. and Sharma A. , 2001, "An Application of Artificial Neural Networks for Rainfall Forecasting", 33, pp. 883-699.
- Michaelides Silas Chr,*, Pattichis Constantinos S. and Kleovouloub Georgia, 2001, "Classification of rainfall variability by using artificial neural networks", International Journal Of Climatology, pp. 1401–1414.
- Chang Fi-John, Liang Jin-Ming, and Chen Yen-Chang,2001, "Flood Forecasting Using Radial Basis Function Neural Networks", IEEE Transactions On Systems, Man, And Cybernetics, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 530-535.
- Brath A. , Montanari A. and Toth E. , 2001, "Neural networks and non-parametric methods for improving ealtime flood forecasting through conceptual hydrological models", Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 6(4), pp. 627-640.
- Rajurkar M. P. , Kothyari U. C. , Chaube U. C. , 2002, "Artificial neural networks for daily rainfall-runoff modelling", Hydrologkal Sciences-Journals, 47(6), pp. 865-877.
- Harun Sobri, Nor Irwan Ahmat & Mohd. Kassim Amir Hashim, 2002, "Artificial neural network model for rainfall-runoff relationship", Journal Technology, Malaysia, pp. 1-12.
- Iseri, Y. G. C. , Dandy, R. , Maier, A. , Kawamura, and Jinno, K. , 2002, "Medium Term Forecasting of Rainfall Using Artificial Neural Networks", Part 1 background and methodology, Journal of Hydrology , 301 (1-4), 1834-1840.
- Silva, A. P. , 2003, "Neural Networks Application to Spatial Interpolation of Climate Variables", Carried Out By, STSM on the Framework of COST 719 ZAMG, Vienna 6-10 October 2003.
- Snell. , Seth, E. , Gopal, Sucharita, Kaufmann, Robert, K. , 2003, "Spatial Interpolation of Surface Air Temperatures Using Artificial Neural Networks: Evaluating Their Use for Downscaling GCMs", Journal of Climate, 13 (5), 886-895.
- Blender, R. , 2003, "Predictability Study of the Observed and Simulated European Climate using Linear Regression", Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. (2003), 129, 2299–2313.
- . Maqsood Imran, Khan Muhammad Riaz, Abraham Ajith, 2004, Neural Comput & Applic, 13, pp. 112–122.
- Pasero Eros, Moniaci Walter, 2004, "Artificial Neural Networks for Meteorological Nowcast", IEEE international Conference,
- . Lekkas D. F. ,* Onof1 C. , Lee1 M. J. , Baltas2 E. A. , 2004, "Application of artificial neural networks for flood forecasting", Global Nest, Vol 6, No 3, pp 205-211.
- Shu Chang and Burn Donald H. , 2004, "Artificial neural network ensembles and their application in pooled flood frequency analysis", Water Resources Research, vol. 40.
- Nayaka P. C. ,*, Sudheerb K. P. ,1Ranganc, D. M. ,2, Ramasastrid K. S. ,3, 2004, "A neuro-fuzzy computing technique for modeling hydrological time series", Journal of Hydrology, Elsevier, 291, pp. 52–66.
- Wu Jy S. , P. E. , ASCE1 M. ; Han2 Jun; Annambhotla3 Shastri; and Scott Bryant4, 2004, "Artificial Neural Networks for Forecasting Watershed Runoff and Stream Flows", Journal Of Hydrologic Engineering, 216.
- Abdel-Aal R. E. *, 2004, "Hourly temperature forecasting using abductive networks", Elsevier, 17, pp. 543–556.
- . Lee Tsong-Lin, 2004, "Back-propagation neural network for long-term tidal predictions", Elsevier, 31, pp. 225–238.
- Chaudhuri Sutapa, Chattopadhyay Surajit, 2005, "Neuro-computing based short range prediction of some meteorological parameters during the pre-monsoon season", Springer-Verlag, 9, pp. 349–354.
- Lin Gwo-Fong * and Chen Lu-Hsien, 2005, "Application of an artificial neural network to typhoon rainfall forecasting", Hydrological Processes, 19, pp. 1825–1837.
- . Vandegriff Jon *, Wagstaff Kiri, George Ho, Plauger Janice, 2005, "Forecasting space weather: Predicting interplanetary shocks using neural networks", Elsevier, vol 36, pp. 2323–2327.
- KISI Ozgur, 2005, "Daily River Flow Forecasting Using Artificial Neural Networks and Auto-Regressive Models", Turkish J. Eng. Env. Sci. , vol 29, pp. 9 - 20.
- Maqsood Imran, Khan Muhammad Riaz, Huang Guo H. , Abdalla Rifaat, 2005, "Application of soft computing models to hourly weather analysis in southern Saskatchewan, Canada", Elsevier, vol 18, pp. 115–125.
- Somvanshi V. K. , Pandey O. P. , Agrawal P. K. , Kalanker1 N. V. , Prakash M. Ravi and Chand Ramesh, 2006, "Modelling and prediction of rainfall using artificial neural network and ARIMA techniques", J. Ind. Geophys. Union, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 141-151.
- Srikalra Niravesh and Tanprasert Chularat, 2006, "Rainfall Prediction for Chao Phraya River using Neural Networks with Online Data Collection", Malaysia, pp. 13-15.
- Kumarasiri A. D. and Sonnadara D. U. J. , 2006, "Rainfall Forecasting: An Artificial Neural Network Approach", Proceedings of the Technical Sessions, vol 22, pp. 1-13.
- Kumar D. Nagesh, Reddy M. Janga and Maity Rajib, 2006, "Regional Rainfall Forecasting using Large Scale Climate Teleconnections and Artificial Intelligence Techniques", Journal of Intelligent Systems, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 307-322.
- Guhathakurta, P. , 2006, "Long-Range Monsoon Rainfall Prediction of 2005 for the Districts and Sub-Division Kerala With Artificial Neural Network", Current Science, 90 (6), pp-773-779.
- Bustami Rosmina, l BessaihNabi, Charles Bong, Suhaila Suhaili, 2007, "Artificial Neural Network for Precipitation and Water Level Predictions of Bedup River", International Journal of Computer Science, vol 34:2.
- Paras, Mathur Sanjay, Kumar Avinash, and Chandra Mahesh, 2007, "A Feature Based Neural Network Model for Weather Forecasting", World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, vol 34, pp. 66-73.
- Hayati Mohsen, and Mohebi Zahra, 2007, "Application of Artificial Neural Networks for Temperature Forecasting", World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, vol 28, pp. 275-279.
- Morid Saeid, Smakhtin Vladimir and Bagherzadeh K. , 2007, "Drought forecasting using artificial neural networks and time series of drought indices", Royal Meteorological Society, vol. 27, pp. 2103–2111.
- Hayati Mohsen, and Shirvany Yazdan, 2007, "Artificial Neural Network Approach for Short Term Load Forecasting for Illam Region", World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, vol. 28, pp. 280-284.
- Lucio P. S. , Conde F. C. , Cavalcanti I. F. A. , Serrano A. I. , Ramos A. M. , and Cardoso A. O. , 2007, "Spatiotemporal monthly rainfall reconstruction via artificial neural network – case study: south of Brazil", Advances in Geosciences, vol. 10, pp. 67–76.
- Hartmann, Heikea * Becker Stefanb and Kinga Lorenz, 2007, "Predicting summer rainfall in the Yangtze River basin with neural networks", Royal Meteorological Society.
- Aliev R. A. , Fazlollahi B. , Aliev R. R. , Guirimov B. , 2008, "Linguistic time series forecasting using fuzzy recurrent neural network", Soft Comput, vol. 12, pp. 183–190.
- Chattopadhyay Surajit and Chattopadhyay Goutami, 2008, "Identification of the best hidden layer size for three layered neural net in predicting monsoon rainfall in India", Journal of Hydroinformatics, vol. 10(2), pp. 181-188.
- Hung N. Q. , Babel M. S. , Weesakul S. , and Tripathi N. K. , 2008, "An artificial neural network model for rainfall forecasting in Bangkok, Thailand", Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, vol. 5, pp. 183–218.
- Aytek Ali, Asce M and Alp Murat, 2008, "An application of artificial intelligence for rainfall–runoff modeling", J. Earth Syst. Sci. , vol. 117, No. 2, pp. 145–155.
- Chattopadhyay Goutami, Chattopadhyay Surajit, Jain Rajni, 2008, "Multivariate forecast of winter monsoon rainfall in India using SST anomaly as a predictor: Neurocomputing and statistical approaches",
- Win Khaing Mar and Thu Naing Thinn, 2008, "Optimum Neural Network Architecture for Precipitation Prediction of Myanmar", World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, vol. 48, pp. 130-134.
- Karmakar Sanjeev et al. , 2008, "Development of a Satellite Based Agriculture Meteorological Information System (AGRIMETCast) in the Context of Remote Places of Chhattisgarh Using Remote Sensing Data" , India Society of Remote Sencing, Ahmedabad, India. , SAC (ISRO)
- Karmakar Sanjeev et al. , 2008, "Development of Artificial Neural Network Models for Long-Range Meteorological Parameters Pattern Recognition over the Smaller Scale Geographical Region", IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA. , 8-10 Dec. 2008, pp. 1 – 6.
- Hocaoglu Fatih O. , Oysal Yusuf, Kurban Mehmet, 2009, "Missing wind data forecasting with adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system", Springer-Verlag London, vol. 18, pp. 207–212.
- Solaimani Karim, 2009, "Rainfall-runoff Prediction Based on Artificial Neural Network (A Case Study: Jarahi Watershed)", American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci. , vol. 5(6), pp. 856-865.
- KOŠCAK Juraj, JAKŠA Rudolf. , SEPEŠI Rudolf, SINCÁK Peter. , 2009, "Weather forecast using Neural Networks", 9th Scientific Conference of Young Researchers
- Karamouz M. ; . Fallahi M, Nazif S. and Farahani M. Rahimi, 2009, "Long Lead Rainfall Prediction Using Statistical Downscaling and Arti cial Neural Network Modeling", Transaction A: Civil Engineering, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 165-172.
- Widjanarko Bambang Otok, Suhartono, 2009, "Development of Rainfall Forecasting Model in Indonesia by using ASTAR, Transfer Function, and ARIMA Methods", European Journal of Scientific Research, Vol. 38 No. 3, pp. 386-395.
- Nekoukar Vahab, Taghi Mohammad, Beheshti Hamidi, 2010, "A local linear radial basis function neural network for financial time-series forecasting", Springer Science, vol. 23, pp. 352–356.
- Weerasinghe H. D. P. ,. Premaratne H. L and Sonnadara D. U. J. , 2010, "Performance of neural networks in forecasting daily precipitation using multiple sources", J. Natn. Sci. Foundation Sri Lanka, vol. 38(3), pp. 163-170.
- Luenam Pramote, Ingsriswang Supawadee, Ingsrisawang Lily, Aungsuratana Prasert, and Khantiyanan Warawut, 2010, "A Neuro-Fuzzy Approach for Daily Rainfall Prediction over the Central Region of Thailand", ISSN 2010, vol. 1.
- Wu C. L. , Chau1 K. W, and Fan C. , 2010, "Prediction of Rainfall Time Series Using Modular Artificial Neural Networks Coupled with Data Preprocessing Techniques", Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 389, No. 1-2, pp. 146-167.
- Nastos Panagiotis, Moustris Kostas, Larissi Ioanna, and Paliatsos Athanasios, 2010, "Rain intensity forecast using Artificial Neural Networks in Athens, Greece", Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 12.
- Patil C. Y. and Ghatol A. A. , 2010, "Rainfall forecasting using local parameters over a meteorological station: an artificial neural network approach", International J. of Engg. Research & Indu. Appls, Vol. 3, No. II, pp 341-356.
- Tiron Gina, and Gosav Stelu?a, 2010, "The july 2008 rainfall estimation from BARNOVA WSR-98 D Radar using artificial neural network", Romanian Reports in Physics, Vol. 62, No. 2, pp. 405–413.
- Goyal Manish Kumar, Ojha Chandra Shekhar Prasad, 2010, "Analysis of Mean Monthly Rainfall Runoff Data of Indian Catchments Using Dimensionless Variables by Neural Network", Journal of Environmental Protection, vol. 1, pp. 155-171.
- Vamsidhar Enireddy Varma K. V. S. R. P. . Sankara Rao P satapati Ravikanth, 2010, "Prediction of Rainfall Using Backpropagation Neural Network Model", International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering, Vol. 02, No. 04, pp. 1119-1121.
- Haghizadeh Ali, Teang shui Lee, Goudarzi Ehsan, 2010, "Estimation of Yield Sediment Using Artificial Neural Network at Basin Scale", Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, vol. 4(7), pp. 1668-1675.
- Subhajini A . C. and Joseph Raj V. , 2010, "Computational Analysis of Optical Neural Network Models to Weather Forecasting", International Journal of Computer Science Issue, Vol. 7, Issue 5, pp. 327-330.
- . Omer Faruk Durdu, 2010, "A hybrid neural network and ARIMA model for water quality time series prediction. ", Elsevier, vol 23, pp. 586–594
- Soman Saurabh S, Zareipour Hamidreza, Malik Om, and Mandal Paras, 2010, "A Review of Wind Power and Wind Speed Forecasting Methods With Different Time Horizons".
- Khalili Najmeh, Khodashenas Saeed Reza, Davary Kamran and Karimaldini Fatemeh, 2011, "Daily Rainfall Forecasting for Mashhad Synoptic Station using Artificial Neural Networks", International Conference on Environmental and Computer Science, vol. 19, pp. 118-123.
- Pan Tsung-Yi, Yang Yi-Ting, Kuo Hung-Chi, Tan Yih-Chi, Lai1 Jihn-Sung, Chang Tsang-Jung, Lee Cheng-Shang, and Hsu Kathryn Hua, 2011, "Improvement of Statistical Typhoon Rainfall Forecasting with ANN-Based Southwest Monsoon Enhancement", Terr. Atmos. Ocean. Sci, Vol. 22, No. 6, pp. 633-645.
- Joshi Jignesh, Patel Vinod M. , 2011, "Rainfall-Runoff Modeling Using Artificial Neural Network (A Literature Review)", National Conference on Recent Trends in Engineering & Technology.
- El-Shafie Amr H. , Shafie A. El-, Mazoghi Hasan G. El, Shehata A. and Taha Mohd. R. , 2011, "Artificial neural network technique for rainfall forecasting applied to Alexandria, Egypt",
- Mekanik F. , Lee T. S. and Imteaz M. A. , 2011, "Rainfall modeling using Artificial Neural Network for a mountainous region in West Iran".
- Kaur Amanpreet, Singh Harpreet, 2011, "Artificial Neural Networks in Forecasting Minimum Temperature", International Journal of Electronics & Communication Technology, Vol. 2, Issue 3, pp. 101-105.
- El-Shafie A. , Jaafer O. and Akrami Seyed Ahmad, 2011, "Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system based model for rainfall forecasting in Klang River, Malaysia", International Journal of the Physical Sciences, Vol. 6(12), pp. 2875-2888.
- Tripathy Asis Kumar, Mohapatra Suvendu, Beura Shradhananda, Pradhan Gunanidhi, 2011. "Weather Forecasting using ANN and PSO", International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 2, Issue 7, pp. 1-5.
- El-Shafie A, Noureldin A. , Taha M. R. , and Hussain A. , 2011, "Dynamic versus static neural network model for rainfall forecasting at Klang River Basin, Malaysia", Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. , vol. 8, pp. 6489–6532.
- Geetha G. ,. Selvaraj R Samuel, 2011, "Prediction of monthly rainfall in Chennai using back propagation neural network model", International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, Vol. 3 No. 1, pp. 211-213.
- Reshma T. , Reddy K. Venkata, Pratap Deva, 2011, "Determination of Distributed Rainfall- Runoff Model Parameters Using Artificial Neural Network", International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Volume 04, No 06, pp. 222-224
- Raju, M. Mohan,. Srivastava R. K, Bisht Dinesh C. S. , Sharma H. C. , and Kumar Anil, 2011, "Development of Artificial Neural-Network-BasedModels for the Simulation of Spring Discharge", Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Volume 2011, pp. 1-11.
- Kavitha M. Mayilvaganan,. Naidu K. B, 2011, "ANN and Fuzzy Logic Models for the Prediction of groundwater level of a watershed", International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering, Vol. 3 No. 6, pp. 2523-2530.
- . El-shafie A. , Mukhlisin M. , Najah Ali A. and Taha M. R. , 2011, "Performance of artificial neural network and regression techniques for rainfall-runoff prediction", International Journal of the Physical Sciences, Vol. 6(8), pp. 1997-2003.
- Afshin Sarah, Fahmi Hedayat, Alizadeh Amin, Sedghi Hussein and Kaveh Fereidoon, 2011, "Long term rainfall forecasting by integrated artificial neural network-fuzzy logic-wavelet model in Karoon basin", Scientific Research and Essays, Vol. 6(6), pp. 1200-1208.
- Siou1 Line Kong A, Johannet Anne, Borrell Valérie, Pistre Séverin, 2011, "Complexity selection of a neural network model for karst flood forecasting: The case of the Lez Basin (southern France)", Journal of Hydrology, vol. 403, pp. 367-380.
- Saima H. , Jaafar J. , Belhaouari S. , Jillani T. A. , 2011, "Intelligent Methods for Weather Forecasting: A Review", IEEE,
- Sawaitul Sanjay D. , Prof. Wagh K. P. , Dr. Chatur P. N. , 2012, "Classification and Prediction of Future Weather by using Back Propagation Algorithm-An Approach", International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, Volume 2, Issue 1, pp. 110-113.
- Karmakar, S. , Kowar, M. K. , Guhathakurta, P. , Evolving and Evaluation of 3LP FFBP Deterministic ANN Model for District Level Long Range Monsoon Rainfall Prediction, J. Environmental Science & Engineering, , National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur, INDIA, ISSN 0367-827, Vol 51, No. 2, pp. 137-144, April 2009. URL: http://www. neeri. res. in/jese. html.
- Karmakar, S. , Kowar, M. K. , Guhathakurta, P. , Development of an 8-Parameter Probabilistic Artificial Neural Network Model for Long-Range Monsoon Rainfall Pattern Recognition over the Smaller Scale Geographical Region –District, IEEE Computer Society, IEEE Xplore 2. 0,, DC, USA, ISBN 978-0-7695-3267-7, pp. 569-574, July 2008. http://www2. computer. org/portal/web/csdl/doi/10. 1109/ICETET. 2008. 225. http://portal. acm. org/citation. cfm?id=1445475
- Karmakar, S. , Kowar, M. K. , Guhathakurta, P. , Development of Artificial Neural Network Models for Long-Range Meteorological Parameters Pattern Recognition over the Smaller Scale Geographical Region-District, IEEE Xplore 2. 0, IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA, ISBN 978-1-4244-2806-9, pp. 1-6, Dec. 2008. URL:http://ieeexplore. ieee. org/xpl/freeabs_all. jsp?isnumber=4798312&arnumber=4798370&count=184&index=54.
- Karmakar, S. , Kowar, M. K. , Guhathakurta, P. , Long-Range Monsoon Rainfall Pattern Recognition & Prediction for the Subdivision 'EPMB' Chhattisgarh Using Deterministic & Probabilistic Neural Network, IEEE Xplore 2. 0, IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA, ISBN 978-0-7695-3520-3, pp. 376-370, Feb. 2009. http://www2. computer. org/portal/web/csdl/doi/10. 1109/ICAPR. 2009. 24.