Call for Paper - July 2023 Edition
IJCA solicits original research papers for the July 2023 Edition. Last date of manuscript submission is June 20, 2023. Read More

Translation Challenges and Universal Networking Language

International Journal of Computer Applications
Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA
Year of Publication: 2016
Baljeet Kaur Dhindsa, Dharam Veer Sharma

Baljeet Kaur Dhindsa and Dharam Veer Sharma. Article: Translation Challenges and Universal Networking Language. International Journal of Computer Applications 133(15):36-40, January 2016. Published by Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA. BibTeX

	author = {Baljeet Kaur Dhindsa and Dharam Veer Sharma},
	title = {Article: Translation Challenges and Universal Networking Language},
	journal = {International Journal of Computer Applications},
	year = {2016},
	volume = {133},
	number = {15},
	pages = {36-40},
	month = {January},
	note = {Published by Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA}


This paper presents challenges being faced in designing automatic translation software. There are many approaches to automatic translation like Direct, Rule based, Transfer based, Statistical based and Interlingua. A brief description of all the approaches and their advantages and drawbacks are discussed. Universal Networking Language (UNL) based on Interlingua approach can be used especially for translation among multiple languages because it requires knowledge of UNL and of the language which user wants UNL to support. User can then get translated text in any of the languages supported by UNL without even being oblivious to any other language. It is less expensive approach also. This paper also gives brief introduction to UNL and how it can overcome many of the challenges in translation.


  1. A. Kupsc, “Two Approaches to Aspect Assignment in an English-Polish Machine Translation System,” in proceedings of 7th International EAMT Workshop on Machine Translation and other Language Technology Tools, Hungary, pp. 17-24, 2003.
  2. A. Lavie, S. Vogel, L. Levin, E. Peterson, K. Probst, A. F. Llitjos, R. Reynolds, J. Carbonell, and R. Cohen, “Experiments with a Hindi-to-English transfer-based MT system under a miserly data scenario,” inACM Transactions on Asian Language Information Processing (TALIP), Vol. 2, Issue 2, pp. 143-163, 2003.
  3. A. Yanishevsky, “The Emerging role of Machine Translation,” [Online] Available: [Accessed: Oct 26, 2015].
  4. B. Dorr, “Parameterization of the Interlingua in Machine Translation,” in the proceedings of the 14th Conference on Computational Linguistics, (COLING '92), Vol. 2, pp. 624-630, 1992.
  5. C. Olinsky and A. W. Black, “Non-Standard Word and Homograph Resolution for Asian Language Text Analysis,” in ICSLP-2000, 2000.
  6. E. Rich, and K.Knight, “Artificial Intelligence”, Second Edition,Tata McGraw-Hill, pp: 377-424, 1991.
  7. G. A. Broadwell, “It ain’t necessary S(V)O: Two Kinds of VSO Languages,” in Proceedings of the LFG05 Conference, 2005. [Online] Available:[Accessed: Dec 10, 2015].
  8. G. S. Josan, G. S. Lehal, “A Punjabi to Hindi Machine Translation System,” in the proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Computational Linguistics, (COLING ’08), pp. 157-160, 2008.
  9. J. Lee, and S. Seneff, “Interlingua-Based Translation for Language Learning Systems,” in Automatic Speech Recognition and Understanding, IEEE Workshop, pp. 133-138, 2005.
  10. P. F. Brown, J. Cocke, S. A. D. Pietra, V. J. D. Pietra, F. Jelinek, J. D. Lafferty, R. L. Mercer, and P. S. Roossin,“A Statistical Approach to Machine Translation,” in Computational Linguistics, Vol. 16, Number 2, pp. 79-85, 1990.
  11. R. K. Mohanty, M. K. Prasad, L. Narayanaswamy, and P. Bhattacharyya, “Semantically Relatable Sequences in the Context of Interlingua Based Machine Translation,” in the proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Natural Language Processing, Hyderabad, (ICON 2007), pp. 1-8, 2007.
  12. S. Chung, “Properties of VOS Languages”, 2005, pp. 685688.[Online]Available: [Accessed: Dec 10, 2015]
  13. S. Karimi, F. Scholer, and A. Turpin, “Machine Transliteration Survey,” ACM Computing Survey, Vol. 43(3), pp. 1-46, 2011.
  14. S. B. Singh, “English-Hindi Translation Grammar,” Prabhat Prakashan, pp. 82-186, 2010.
  15. T. Mitamura, E. H. Nyberg, and J. G. Carbonell, “An Efficient Interlingua Translation System for Multi-lingual Document Production,” in the proceedings of Machine Translation Summit III, Washington D.C., pp. 105-117, 1991.
  16. V. Goyal, G. S. Lehal, “Web Based Hindi to Punjabi Machine Translation System,” in Journal of Emerging Technologies in Web Intelligence, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 148-151, 2010.
  17. V. Kommaluri, “Rule-based Machine Translation System using Indian Logic for Discourse Texts,” Report, C-DAC Mumbai, Mar 2007. [Online] Available:[Accessed Nov 12, 2010].
  18. W. J. Hutchins, “Machine Translation over fifty years”, in Histoire, Epistemologie, Langage, Tome XXII, fasc. 1, pp.7-31, 2001.
  19. W. Kraaij, J. Y. Nie, and M. Simard, “Embedding Web-Based Statistical Translation Models in Cross-Language Information Retrieval,”in Association for Computational Linguistics, pp. 381-419, 2003.
  20. W. Winiwarter, “Machine Translation Using Corpus-based Acquisition of Transfer Rules”, in the proceedings of the International Conference on Digital Information Management, (ICDIM '07), pp. 345-350, 2007.
  21. Y. Grishkyan, “Upon Comparison of Some Online UNL Modules,” in Proceeding of CSIT2009, 2009.
  22. Universal Networking Digital Language Foundation, [Online] Available: [Accessed: Dec 15, 2015]


Machine Translation, Machine Translation Approaches, Interlingua, Challenges in Machine Translation, Universal Networking Language, Overcoming challenges in Machine Translation using UNL.