Call for Paper - March 2023 Edition
IJCA solicits original research papers for the March 2023 Edition. Last date of manuscript submission is February 20, 2023. Read More

Survey on Robust and Reversible Watermarking for Relational Data

International Journal of Computer Applications
Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA
Year of Publication: 2016
Udaya Rani, Shreedevi B. Choudri, Vinayak Murthy

Udaya Rani, Shreedevi B Choudri and Vinayak Murthy. Article: Survey on Robust and Reversible Watermarking for Relational Data. International Journal of Computer Applications 139(9):31-34, April 2016. Published by Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA. BibTeX

	author = {Udaya Rani and Shreedevi B. Choudri and Vinayak Murthy},
	title = {Article: Survey on Robust and Reversible Watermarking for Relational Data},
	journal = {International Journal of Computer Applications},
	year = {2016},
	volume = {139},
	number = {9},
	pages = {31-34},
	month = {April},
	note = {Published by Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA}


In the course of recent years, reversible watermarking systems for social databases have been proposed to give assurance of possession rights, information treating, and information trustworthiness. Every now and again, these strategies make certain fashioned information recuperation from knowledge of the watermarks, though irreversible watermarking plans best safeguard possession rights. At the point when possession rights are upheld utilizing watermarking, the basic information experiences specific alteration; as a consequence of which, the information quality gets traded off. Reversible watermarking is utilized to guarantee information quality alongside information recuperation. Nevertheless, such approaches are in general now not strong towards malicious assaults and what's more, don't supply any component to specifically watermark a one of a kind quality by means of considering its position in capacities disclosure.


  1. Cox I, Miller M, Bloom J, Miller M. Digital Watermarking. Morgan Kaufmann: San Francisco, California, 2001.
  2. Wong PW, Memon N. Secret and public key image watermarking schemes for image authentication and ownership
  3. Verification.IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 2001; 10(10): 1593–1601.
  4. Petit colas FA. Watermarking schemes evaluation. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine 2000; 17(5): 58–64.
  5. Brassil J T, Low S, Maxemc huk NF.“Copyright protection for the electronic distribution of text documents” .Proceedings of the IEEE 1999; 87(7): 1181–1196.
  6. Agrawal R, Kiernan J. Watermarking relational databases, Proceedings of the 28th international conference on Very Large Data Bases, VLDB Endowment, Hong Kong, 2002; 155–166.
  7. Sion R, Attala M, Prabhakar S. Right’s protection for relational data. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering 2004; 16(12): 1509–1525.
  8. Sion R, Attala M, Prabhakar S. Right’s protection for categorical data. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering 2005; 17(7): 912–926.
  9. M. Kamran and Zahid Anwar A survey on reversible watermarking techniques for relational databases 2015.
  10. S. Subramanya and B. K. Yi, “Digital rights management,” IEEE Potentials, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 31–34, Mar.-Apr. 2006.
  11. Ashu Gupta and Mohd Dawood “Digital and Database Watermarking “2012.
  12. 11. R. Agrawal and J. Kiernan, “Watermarking relational databases,” in Proc. 28th Int. Conf. Very Large Data Bases, 2002, pp. 155–166.
  13. Shampa Chakraverty and Om Prakash Verma “A Robust Multiple Watermarking Technique for Information Recovery” 2014.
  14. K. Jawad and A. Khan, “Genetic algorithm and difference expansion based reversible watermarking for relational databases,” J. Syst. Softw.vol. 86, no. 11, pp. 2742–2753, 2013.
  15. Shi-Jinn Horng and Xian Wang “A novel blind reversible method for watermarking relational Databases”, 2013.
  16. Loganayaki “Robust Watermarking For Relational Database ”International Journal of Communication and Computer Technologies Volume 01 – No.41, Issue: 05 May 2013.
  17. Aihab Khan1 and Syed Afaq Husain “A Fragile Zero Watermarking Scheme to Detect and Characterize Malicious Modifications in Database Relations” Hindawi Publishing Corporation The Scientific World Journal Volume 2013.
  18. .R. Hassan, B. Cohanim, O. De Weck, and G. Venter, “A comparison of particle swarm optimization and the genetic algorithm,” in Proc. 46th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC , Struct. Dyn. Mater. Conf., 2005, pp. 1–13.
  19. Yingjiu Li and Huiping Guo “Tamper Detection and Localization for Categorical Data Using Fragile Watermarks” 2004.


Reversible Watermarking, Genetic Algorithm, Robustness