Call for Paper - January 2023 Edition
IJCA solicits original research papers for the January 2023 Edition. Last date of manuscript submission is December 20, 2022. Read More

A Review on Various Implemented Techniques for Visual Cryptography

International Journal of Computer Applications
Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA
Year of Publication: 2016
Amit Kumar Rathore, Anurag Jain

Amit Kumar Rathore and Anurag Jain. A Review on Various Implemented Techniques for Visual Cryptography. International Journal of Computer Applications 155(5):27-32, December 2016. BibTeX

	author = {Amit Kumar Rathore and Anurag Jain},
	title = {A Review on Various Implemented Techniques for Visual Cryptography},
	journal = {International Journal of Computer Applications},
	issue_date = {December 2016},
	volume = {155},
	number = {5},
	month = {Dec},
	year = {2016},
	issn = {0975-8887},
	pages = {27-32},
	numpages = {6},
	url = {},
	doi = {10.5120/ijca2016912314},
	publisher = {Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA},
	address = {New York, USA}


Over the earlier period, information technology has gain access to more and more regions of our society. The expansion of digital information and telecommunication systems released a extensive collection of novel possibilities which were grab to get better the effectiveness of different sorts of procedures. The area of Visual Cryptography has progressed progressively over the past some years. It started as a procedure to encrypt binary images to hide messages containing text and has developed into encrypting color images as meaningful shares to conceal messages ranging from binary text to other color images.


  1. J. Pejaś, M. Zawalich, “Visual Cryptography Methods as a Source of Trustworthiness for the Signature Creation and Verification Systems,” Advances in Information Processing and Protection, Springer, USA, 2008, pp. 225–239.
  2. I. Fischer and T. Herfet, “Watermarks and Text Transformations in Visual Document Authentication,” Journal of Computers, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 44–53, 2007.
  3. K. Manglem, S. Nandi, S. Birendra, L. Shyamsundar, “Stealth Steganography in Visual Cryptography for Half Tone Images,” in Proc. of the International Conference on Computer and Communication Engineering, Malaysia, 2008.
  4. Y. C. Hou, S. F. Tu, “A Visual Cryptographic Technique for Chromatic Images Using Multi-pixel Encoding Method,” Journal of Research and Practice in Information Technology, vol.37, no.2, pp. 179–192, 2005.
  5. Sankar Das, Sandipan Chowdhury and Dibya Chakraborty, “Visual Cryptography using Three Independent Shares in Color Images”, International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE) ISSN: 2349-2163 Issue 4, Volume 2 (April 2015).
  6. Kun-Yuan Chao*, Ja-Chen Lin,”(2, 3)-threshold visual cryptography for color images”, Proc. Of the 6th WSEAS Int. Conf. On Signal Processing, Computational Geometry & Artificial Vision, Elounda, Greece, August 21-23, 2006 pp. 89-94.
  7. Shiny Malar F.R, Jeya Kumar M.K,” Error Filtering Schemes for Color Images in Visual Cryptography”, International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, Vol. 2, No. 11, 2011.
  8. Der-Chyuan Lou, Hong-Hao Chen, Hsien-Chu Wu, and Chwei-Shyong Tsai. A novel authenticatable color visual secret sharing scheme using non-expanded meaningful shares. Displays, 32:118-134, February 2011.
  9. Moni Naor and Adi Shamir. Visual cryptography. EUROCRYPT, pages 1-12, 1994.
  10. C-C Chang, W-L Tai, and C-C Lin. Hiding a secret colour image in two colour images. The Imaging Science Journal, 53:229-240, May 2005.
  11. A. D. Bonis, and A. D. Santis, "Secret Sharing and Visual Cryptography Schemes", Proceedings of the IFIP TC11 16th International Conference on Information Security, (2001), pp. 123-138.
  12. Y. C. Hou, "Visual cryptography for color images", Pattern Recognition, Vol. 36, No. 7, (2003), pp. 1619-1629.
  13. R. Youmaran, A. Adler, and A. Miri, "An Improved Visual Cryptography Scheme for Secret Hiding", 23rd Biennial Symposium on Communications, (2006), pp. 340-343.
  14. R. Ito, H. Kuwakado, and H. Tanaka, "Image size invariant visual cryptography", IEICE Trans. Fund., Vol. E82-A, No.10, (1999), pp. 2172-2177.
  15. C.-N. Yang, "New visual secret sharing schemes using probabilistic method", Pattern Recognition Letter, Vol. 25, No. 4, (2004), pp.481-494.
  16. S.-F. Tu, "On the design of protection scheme for digital images and documents based on visual secret sharing and Steganography", Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Information Management, National Central University, Taiwan, (2004).
  17. Zhou, G. R. Arce, and G. Di Crescenzo, “Halftone Visual Cryptography,” IEEE transactions on Image Processing, to appear in 2006.
  18. M. Naor and B. Pinkas, “Visual authentication and identification,” Crypto97, LNCS, vol. 1294, pp. 322–340, 1997.
  19. M. Naor and A. Shamir, “Visual Cryptography,” in Proceedings of Euro crypt 1994, lecture notes in Computer Science, 1994, vol. 950, pp. 1–12.
  20. A. Bonnis and A. Santis, “Randomness in secret sharing and visual cryptography schemes,” Theory. Computer Science, 314, pp 351- 374 (2004).
  21. E. Myodo, S. Sakazawa, Andy. Takishima, “Visual cryptography based on void-and-cluster half toning technique,” in Proc. IEEE ICIP, Atlanta, GA, Oct. 2006.
  22. R. Hwang, “A digital Image Copyright Protection Scheme Based on Visual Cryptography,” Tambang Journal of science and Engineering, vol.3, No.2, pp. 97-106 (2000).
  23. Jainthi.k, Prabhu.P ,”A novel cryptographic technique that emphasis visual quality and efficieny by floyd steinberg error diffusion method”, International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, eISSN: 2319-1163 pISSN: 2321-7308,Volume: 04, Issue: 02 Feb-2015.
  24. Zarko Stanisavljevic, Jelena Stanisavljevic, Pavle Vuletic, and Zoran Jovanovic, “COALA-System for Visual Representation of Cryptography Algorithms” IEEE Transactions On Learning Technologies, Vol. 7, No. 2, April-June 2014.
  25. C. D. Hundhausen, S. A. Douglas, and J. T. Stasko, “A meta-study of algorithm visualization effectiveness,” J. Vis. Languages Comput., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 259–290, Jun. 2002.
  26. D. Schweitzer, D. Gibson, and M. Collins, “Active learning in the security classroom,” in Proc. IEEE 42nd Hawaii Int. Conf. Syst. Sci., Jan. 2009, pp. 1–8.
  27. X. Yuan, R. Archer, J. Xu, and H. Yu, “A visualization tool for wireless network attacks,” J. Educ., Inf. Cybern., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 53–58, 2009.
  28. D. Schweitzer and L. Baird, “The design and use of interactive visualization applets for teaching ciphers,” in Proc. IEEE Inf. Assurance Workshop, Jun. 2006, pp. 69–75.
  29. D. Schweitzer, L. Baird, M. Collins, W. Brown, and M. Sherman, “GRASP: A visualization tool for teaching security protocols,” in Proc. 10th Colloquium Inf. Syst. Security Educ., Jun. 2006, pp. 75–81.


Visual Cryptography (VC), Gray Scale Images, Cryptography, Extended Visual Cryptography Scheme (EVCS).