Call for Paper - November 2022 Edition
IJCA solicits original research papers for the November 2022 Edition. Last date of manuscript submission is October 20, 2022. Read More

A New Charge Balancing and Equalization Mechanism for Batteries

International Journal of Computer Applications
Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA
Year of Publication: 2018
Venkatesh Prasad K. S., B. P. Divakar

Venkatesh Prasad K S. and B P Divakar. A New Charge Balancing and Equalization Mechanism for Batteries. International Journal of Computer Applications 180(11):16-26, January 2018. BibTeX

	author = {Venkatesh Prasad K. S. and B. P. Divakar},
	title = {A New Charge Balancing and Equalization Mechanism for Batteries},
	journal = {International Journal of Computer Applications},
	issue_date = {January 2018},
	volume = {180},
	number = {11},
	month = {Jan},
	year = {2018},
	issn = {0975-8887},
	pages = {16-26},
	numpages = {11},
	url = {},
	doi = {10.5120/ijca2018916226},
	publisher = {Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA},
	address = {New York, USA}


Battery bank is used in many applications such as Electric vehicles, Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Plug in Electric Vehicles. These battery banks are of high-capacity and configured in series using multiple low or medium capacity batteries. These battery banks are expected to perform in the most challenging environmental conditions. Due to harsh environmental and operating conditions, the configured batteries tend to develop an imbalance in their charge levels. This imbalance may cause a normal variation or abnormal (large) variation in their state of charge. This imbalance of charge among batteries reduces the efficiency, reliability and life span of the battery bank. Hence, a technique called charge balancing and equalization is adapted to ensure the batteries are maintained at the optimum charge level in a battery bank so as to extend battery life span with reliability. Much topology on the cell balancing/equalization has been proposed in the past. The main topologies are passive and active balancing/equalizing. This paper presents a unique non dissipative 4 steps balancing and equalizing process for Lead acid batteries and a unique three step balancing and equalization process for other battery types. Both the process is so devised, to handle the batteries having normal or abnormal variations in their state of charge. The proposed 4 step method has been validated by developing the experimental setup.


  1. Nasser H. Kutkut, Deepak .M.Divan, D.W.Novotny, “ Charge Equalization for Series Connected Battery Strings”, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol 31, No.3 January 1995.
  2. Eklas Hossain, Ron Perez, Ramazan Bayindir, “ Implementation of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems to Compensate Microgrid Instability in the Presence of Constant Power Loads”, International Journal Of Renewable Energy Research, IJRER Vol.7, No.2, 2017
  3. Savvas Tsotoulidis, Athanasios Safacas, “Analysis of a Drive System in a Fuel Cell and Battery powered Electric Vehicle”,International Journal Of Renewable Energy Research, IJRER Vol.1, No3, pp.31-42 ,2011.
  4. Lekhchine Salima, Bahi Tahar, Soufi Youcef, “Comparative Performances Study of a Variable Speed Electrical Drive”, International Journal Of Renewable Energy Research, IJRER Vol.2, No.4, 2012
  5. Rahim Ajabi-Farshbaf, Mohammad Reza Azizian, Sirvan Shazdeh, Ataollah Mokhberdoran, “Modeling of a New Configuration for DFIGs Using T-type Converters and a Predictive Control Strategy in Wind Energy Conversion Systems”, International Journal Of Renewable Energy Research, IJRER Vol.6, No.3, 2016
  6. Technical note, “Equalising Batteries”, Smart Power choices, Freedom and link 512-0027-0-01-Rev1.
  7. Yuang-Shung Lee,and Ming-Wang Cheng, “Intelligent Control Battery Equalization for Series Connected Lithium-Ion Battery Strings”, IEEE transactions on industrial electronics, vol. 52, no. 5, october 2005.
  8. Dorin CADAR, Dorin PETREUS, Toma Patarau, Niculaie Palaghita, “Active Balancing method for Battery Cell Equalization”, Acta Technica Napocensis Electronics and Telecommunication, Volume 51, number 2, 2010.
  9. Mohamed Daowd, Noshin Omar, Peter Van Den Bossche, Joeri Van Mierlo, “A Review of Passive and Active Battery Balancing based on MATLAB/Simulink”, International Review of Electrical Engineering (I.R.E.E.), Vol. xx, n. x Manuscript received Copyright © 2011 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.1.
  10. Mohamed Daowd, Mailier Antoine, Noshin Omar, Philippe and Joeri Van Mierlo, “ Battery Management System- Balancing Modularization Based on a Single Switched Capacitor and Bi-Directional DC/DC Converter with the Auxiliary Battery” Energies 2014, 7, 2897-2937; 10.3390/en7052897.
  11. Nasser H. Kutkut, H.L.N. Wiegman, Deepak .M.Divan, D.W.Novotny, “ Charge Equalization for an Electric Vehicle Battery System”, IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems Vol 34, No.1 January 1998.
  12. Yunlong Shang, Chenghui Zhang, Naxin Cui, and Josep M. Guerrero, “A Cell-to-Cell Battery Equalizer With Zero-Current Switching and Zero-Voltage Gap Based on Quasi-Resonant LC Converter and Boost Converter”, I E E E Transactions on Power Electronics 10.1109/TPEL.2014.2345672, 2015.
  13. J.F. Reynaud, C. E. Carrejo, O. Gantet, P. Aloïsi, B. Estibals, C. Alonso Wen-Yeau Chang, “Active balancing circuit for advanced lithium-ion batteries used in photovoltaic application” International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality (ICREPQ’11) Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain), 13th to 15th April, 201, RE&PQJ, Vol.1, No.9, May 2011
  14. Zhiwei He, Mingyu Gao , Caisheng Wang , Leyi Wang and Yuanyuan Liu, “Adaptive State of Charge Estimation for Li-Ion Batteries Based on an Unscented Kalman Filter with an Enhanced Battery Model Energies 2013, 6, 4134-4151; doi:10.3390/en6084134, ISSN 1996-1073.
  15. A. Lohner, E. Karden, R. W. DeDoncker,. “Charge equalizing and lifetime increasing with a new charging method for VRLA batteries”, In Proc. IEEE Int. l. Telecommunications Energy Conf., 1997, pp. 407-411.
  16. Mohamed Daowd, Noshin Omar, Bavo Verbrugge, Peter Van Den Bossche, Joeri Van Mierlo, “Battery Models Parameter Estimation based on Matlab/Simulink”, The 25th World Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium & Exhibition, ©EVS-25 Shenzhen, China, Nov. 5-9, 2010
  17. Mohamed Daowd, Mailier Antoine, Noshin Omar , Peter van den Bossche and Joeri van Mierlo, “Single Switched Capacitor Battery Balancing System Enhancements”, energies ISSN 1996-1073, Energies 2013, 6, 2149-2174; doi: 10.3390/en6042149.
  18. Taesic Kim, Wei Qiao, Liyan Qu, “A Multicell Battery System Design for Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles”, 2012 IEEE International Electric Vehicle Conference (IEVC) Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/IEVC.2012.6183240.
  19. William Gerard Hurley, Yuk Sum Wong, and Werner Hugo Wölfle, “Self-Equalization of Cell Voltages to Prolong the Life of VRLA Batteries in Standby Applications”, IEEE transactions on industrial electronics, vol. 56, no. 6, june 2009
  20. A. Tsapras, C. Balas, K. Kalaitzakis, and Dr. Eng. J. Chatzakis, “A New Equalization Scheme for Series Connected Battery Cells,” EPE Journal × Vol. 19 × no 3 × September 2009.
  21. Philip T. Krein, Robert Balog, “Life Extension Through Charge Equalization of Lead-Acid Batteries,” INTELEC 2002 Paper 32.1.
  22. Yee Wan Wong, et al, “A New State of Charge Estimation Method for Valve regulated Lead Acid Batteries”, Journal of EngineeringScience and Technology Vol,XX, No Y (Year) PPP-QQQ.
  23. Data sheet LM2596, ©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC, 2008 November, 2008 − Rev. 0, Publication Order Number: LM2596/D.


State of Charge (SOC); State of Health (SOH); Equalization Step, MOSFET; Battery; Over Charging Current.