Call for Paper - June 2018 Edition
IJCA solicits original research papers for the June 2018 Edition. Last date of manuscript submission is May 21, 2018. Read More

Comparative study of Arithmetic and Huffman Compression Techniques for Enhancing Security and Effective Bandwidth Utilization in the Context of ECC for Text

International Journal of Computer Applications
© 2011 by IJCA Journal
Number 6 - Article 7
Year of Publication: 2011
O.Srinivasa Rao
Prof.S.Pallam Setty

O.Srinivasa Rao and Prof.S.Pallam Setty. Article: Comparative Study of Arithmetic and Huffman Compression Techniques for Enhancing Security and Effective Bandwidth Utilization in the Context of ECC for Text. International Journal of Computer Applications 29(6):44-60, September 2011. Full text available. BibTeX

	author = {O.Srinivasa Rao and Prof.S.Pallam Setty},
	title = {Article: Comparative Study of Arithmetic and Huffman Compression Techniques for Enhancing Security and Effective Bandwidth Utilization in the Context of ECC for Text},
	journal = {International Journal of Computer Applications},
	year = {2011},
	volume = {29},
	number = {6},
	pages = {44-60},
	month = {September},
	note = {Full text available}


In this paper, we proposed a model for text encryption using elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) for secure transmission of text and by incorporating the Arithmetic/Huffman data compression technique for effective utilization of channel bandwidth and enhancing the security. In this model, every character of text message is transformed into the elliptic curve points (Xm,Ym), these elliptic curve points are converted into cipher text .The resulting size of cipher text becomes four times of the original text. For minimizing the channel bandwidth requirements, the encrypted text is compressed using the Arithmetic and Huffman compression technique in the following two ways by considering i)x-y co-ordinates of encrypted text and ii) x-co-ordinates of the encrypted text. The results of the above two cases are compared in terms of overall bandwidth required and saved for Arithmetic and Huffman compression.


  • Neal Koblitz, ”Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem, Journal of mathematics computation Vol.48, No.177pp.203-209,Jan-1987.
  • V. Miller, “Uses of elliptic curves in cryptography”, Advances in Cryptology–Crypto ’85,Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 218
  • Certicom Corp., “ An Introduction to Information Security”, Number 1, March 1997.
  • ANSI X9.63, Public Key Cryptography for the Financial Services Industry: Elliptic CurveKey Agreement and Key Transport Protocols, ballot version, May 2001.
  • Internet Engineering Task Force, The OAKLEY Key Determination Protocol, IETF RFC 2412, November 1998.
  • ISO/IEC 15946-3, Information Technology–Security Techniques–Cryptographic TechniquesBased on Elliptic Curves, Part 3, Final Draft International Standard (FDIS), February 2001
  • National Institute of Standards and Technology, Digital Signature Standard, FIPS Publication186-2, 2000.
  • M. Jacobson, N. Koblitz, J. Silverman, A. Stein and E. Teske, “Analysis of the xedni calculus attack”, Designs, Codes and Cryptography, 20 (2000), 41-64. (1986), Springer-Verlag, 417-426.
  • Standards for Efficient Cryptography Group, SEC 1: Elliptic Curve Cryptography, version1.0, 2000. Available at
  • R.L. Rivest, A. Shamir, and L.M. Adleman, Method for Obtaining Digital Signatures and Public-key Cryptosystems “, Communications of the ACM,Volume 21, pages 120-126, February 1978.
  • S. Arita, “Weil descent of elliptic curves over finite fields of characteristic three”, Advances in Cryptology–Asiacrypt 2000, LectureNotes in Computer Science, 1976 (2000),Springer-Verlag, 248-259
  • Fernandes, A. “Elliptic Curve Cryptography”, Dr.Dobb’s journal, December 1999
  • D. A. Huffman, "A method for the construction of minimum redundancy codes", Proc. IRE, Vol. 40, No. 9, pp. 1098-1101, September 1952.
  • Rissanen, J.J. Generalized Kraft inequality and arithmetic coding.IBM 1. Res. Dev. 20 (May 1976), 198-203. Another early exposition of the idea of arithmetic coding.
  • Pasco, R. (1976) “Source Coding Algorithms for Fast Data Compression,” Ph. D. dissertation, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif
  • Rissanen. J.J. Arithmetic codings as number representations. Acta Polytech. Stand. Math. 31 (Dec. 1979), 44-51. Further develops arithmetic coding as a practical technique for data representation.
  • Rissanen, J., and Langdon, G.G. Arithmetic coding. IBM J. Res. Dev.23, 2 (Mar. 1979). 149-162. Describes a broad class of arithmetic codes.
  • Langdon, G.G. An introduction to arithmetic coding. IBMI. Res. Dev. 28, 2 (Mar. 1984), 135-149. Introduction to arithmetic coding from the point of view of hardware implementation.
  • A.Moffat and J.Katajainen, "In-place calculation of minimum-redundancy codes", 4th Intl. Workshop on Algorithms and Data Structures, Vol. 955, pp. 393-402, August 1995.
  • J.Van Leeuwen, "On the construction of Huffman trees", 3rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages and Programming, pp. 382-410, July 1976.
  • M. Buro, "On the maximum length of Huffman codes", Information Processing Letters, Vol. 45, No.5, pp. 219-223, April 1993.
  • H. C. Chen, Y. L. Wang and Y. F. Lan, "A memory efficient and fast Huffman decoding algorithm", Information Processing Letters, Vol. 69, No. 3, pp. 119- 122, February 1999.
  • R. Hashemian, "Direct Huffman coding and decoding using the table of code-lengths", Proc. International Conf. on Inform. Technology: Computers and Communications (ITCC '03), pp. 237-241, April 2003.
  • S. Ho and P. Law, "Efficient hardware decoding method for modified Huffman code", Electronics Letters, Vol. 27, No. 10, pp. 855-856, May 1991.
  • S. T. Klein, "Skeleton trees for the efficient decoding of Huffman encoded texts", Kluwer Journal of Inform. Retrieval, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 7-23, July 2000.
  • L. L. Larmore and D. S. Hirschberg, "A fast algorithm for optimal length-limited Huffman codes", Journal of ACM, Vol. 37, No. 3, pp. 464-473, July 1999.
  • A. Moffat and A. Turpin, "On the implementation of minimum-redundancy prefix codes", IEEE Trans. Commun., Vol. 45, No. 10, pp. 1200-1207, October 1997.
  • O.Srinivasa Rao, S.Pallam Setty, “Efficient mapping methods of Elliptic Curve Crypto Systems” International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, Vol. 2(8), 2010, pp. 3651-3656
  • Vigila, S.; Muneeswaran, K.; “Implementation of text based cryptosystem using Elliptic Curve Cryptography”, Advanced Computing, 2009. ICAC 2009. First International Conference on 13-15 Dec. 2009, Onpage(s): 82-85.
  • Gupta, K.; Silakari, S.; Gupta, R.; Khan, S.A.; “ An Ethical Way of Image Encryption Using ECC” Computational Intelligence, Communication Systems and Networks, 2009. CICSYN '09. First International Conference on 23-25 July 2009,Onpage(s):342-345.
  • R. Rajaram Ramasamy, M. Amutha Prabakar, M. Indra Devi, and M. Suguna, “Knapsack Based ECC Encryption and Decryption” International Journal of Network Security, Vol.9, No.3, PP.218–226, Nov. 2009
  • O.Srinivasa Rao, S.Pallam Setty, “Comparative Study of Arithmetic and Huffman Data Compression Techniques for Koblitz Curve Cryptography” International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887),Volume 14– No.5, January 2011.