Call for Paper - August 2022 Edition
IJCA solicits original research papers for the August 2022 Edition. Last date of manuscript submission is July 20, 2022. Read More

Design of Load-frequency Controller using Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for an interconnected power system Coordinated with UPFC and RFB

International Journal of Computer Applications
© 2011 by IJCA Journal
Volume 36 - Number 5
Year of Publication: 2011
B. Paramasivam
I. A. Chidambaram

B Paramasivam and I A Chidambaram. Article: Design of Load-frequency Controller using Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for an interconnected power system Coordinated with UPFC and RFB. International Journal of Computer Applications 36(5):25-36, December 2011. Full text available. BibTeX

	author = {B. Paramasivam and I. A. Chidambaram},
	title = {Article: Design of Load-frequency Controller using Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for an interconnected power system Coordinated with UPFC and RFB},
	journal = {International Journal of Computer Applications},
	year = {2011},
	volume = {36},
	number = {5},
	pages = {25-36},
	month = {December},
	note = {Full text available}


This paper proposes a sophisticated application of Redox Flow Batteries (RFB) coordinated with Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) for the improvement of Load Frequency Control (LFC) of a multi- unit multi- area power system. The UPFC offers an effective means to enhance improvement in the power transfer capability of the tie-line. The main application of UPFC is to stabilize the frequency oscillations of the inter-area mode in the interconnected power system by the dynamic control of tie-line power flow. The Redox flow batteries, which are not aged to the frequent charging and discharging, have a quick response and outstanding function during overload conditions. In addition to leveling load, the battery is advantageous for secondary control in the power system and maintenance of power quality of distributed power resources. The Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm is used to optimize the parameters of UPFC and the cost function of the two area power system along with the integral controller. Simulation studies reveal that the frequency control concept and control design of a RFB coordinated with UPFC units enhance the inertia centre mode as well as inter-area oscillation modes interms of peak deviations and settling time as compared to the output responses of the system obtained without UPFC and RFB units.


  • O .P. Malik, Ashok Kumar, .G.S, Hope, “A load-frequency control algorithm based on a generalized approach”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol.3, No.2, 1988, pp. 375-382.
  • H. Shayeghi, H.A. Shayanfar, A. Jalili, “Load frequency Control Strategies: A state-of-the-art survey for the researcher”, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol.50, No.2, 2009, pp.344-353.
  • I.P. Kumar, D.P.Kothari, “Recent philosophies of automatic generation control strategies in power systems” IEEE Transactions on Power System, Vol.20, No.1, 2005, pp. 346-357.
  • Issarachai Ngamroo, “A Stabilization of Frequency Oscillations in an interconnected Power System Using Static Synchronous Series Compensator”, Thanmmasa International Journal Science and Technology, Vol.6, No.1, 2001, pp. 52-60
  • L. Gyugi, “Unified Power Flow Control Concept for Flexible AC Transmission Systems”, IEE proceedings-C, Vol. 139, No.4, 1992, pp.323-331
  • L. Musirin, .N.Dianah, M.Radzi, M. Murtadha Othman, M.Khayat Idris, T. Khawa Abdul Rahman, “Voltage Profile Improvement Using Unified Power Flow Controller via Artificial Immune System,” WSEAS Transactions on Power System, Issue 4, Vol.3, 2008.
  • L.Gyugi, C.D. Schaunder, S.L. Williams, T.R. Reitman, D. R. Torgerson and A. Edris, “The Unified Power Flow Controller: A new approach to Power Transmission Control,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol.10, 1995, pp.1085-1097.
  • B.A. Renz, A. S. Mehraben, C. Schauder, E. Stacey, L.Kovalsky, L. Gyugi, and A.Edris, “ AEP Unified Power Flow Controller Performance,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery. Vol.14, 1999, pp.1374-1381
  • S.Arabi, P.Kundar, and R.Adapa, “Innovative techniques in modeling UPFC for power system analysis,” IEEE Transactions on Power System, Vol.15, 2000, pp.336-341.
  • A.Kazemi, M.R. Shadmesgaran, “Extended Supplementary Controller of UPFC to Improve Damping Inter-Area Oscillations Considering Inertia Coefficient,” International Journal of Energy, Issue 1, Vol.2, 2008
  • Wang, H.F, 'Applications of Modeling UPFC into Multi- machine Power Systems', IEE Proceedings Generation Transmission Distribution, Vol. 146, No. 3, May 1999, pp. 306-312
  • Uzunovic, E., Canizares, C.A., Reeve, J., “Fundamental Frequency Model of Unified Power Flow Controller,” North American Power Symposium, NAPS, Cleveland, Ohio, October 1998
  • Uzunovic.E., Canizares, C.A., Reeve, J., “EMTP Studies of UPFC Power Oscillation Damping', Proceedings of the North American Power Symposium (NAPS), San Luis Obispo. CA, October 1999, pp. 405-410
  • Huang, Z., Ni, Y., Shen, C.M., Wu, F.F., Chen, S., Zhang, B., 'Application of Unified Power Flow Controller in Interconnected Power Systems Modeling, Interface, Control Strategy and Case Study', IEEE Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting, 1999
  • N.Tokuda, “Development of a Redox Flow Battery System”, Engineering, IECEC-98-1074, August, 1998
  • K.Enomoto, T.Sasaki, T.Shigematsu, H. Deguchi, “Evaluation study about Redox Flow Battery Response and its Modeling”, IEEJ Transactions on Power Engineering, Vol.122-13, No.4, 2002, pp 554-560.
  • Ghoshal, “Application of GA/GA-SA based fuzzy automatic control of multi-area thermal generating system”, Electric Power System Research, Vol.70, 2004, pp. 115-127.
  • P.J. Angeline, “Using Selection to Improve Particle Swarm Optimization”, Proceeding IEEE .International Conference of Evolutionary Computing, 1998, pp. 84-90.
  • D.Karaboga, “An Idea Based on Honey Bee Swarm for Numerical Optimization”, Technical Report-TR06, Erciyes University, Engineering Faculty, Computer Engineering Department, 2005.
  • D.Karaboga, B.Basturk, “On the Performance of Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) Algorithm”, Applied Soft Computing, Vol.8.No.1, 2008, pp687-697.
  • D.Karaboga, B.Basturk, “Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) Optimization Algorithm for Solving Constrained Optimization Problems”, LNCS: Advances in Soft Computing: Foundations of Fuzzy Logic and Soft Computing, Vol.4529, 2007, pp.789-798.
  • Dervis Karaboga, Bahriye Akay, “A comparative study of Artificial Bee Colony algorithm”, Applied Mathematics and Computation, Vol. 214, .2009, pp.108–132
  • I.A.Chidambaram, S.Velusami, “Design of decentralized biased controllers for load-frequency control of interconnected power systems”, International Journal of Electric Power Components and Systems, Vol.33, No12, 2005, pp.1313-1331.
  • Ogata Katsubiko (1986) Modern Control Engineering, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi, 1986.