Call for Paper - March 2023 Edition
IJCA solicits original research papers for the March 2023 Edition. Last date of manuscript submission is February 20, 2023. Read More

A Highly Effective Adaptive Switching Mean Filter Algorithm for Salt and Pepper Noise Removal

International Journal of Computer Applications
© 2013 by IJCA Journal
Volume 61 - Number 19
Year of Publication: 2013
Aly Meligy
Hani M. Ibrahem
Sahar Shoman

Aly Meligy, Hani M Ibrahem and Sahar Shoman. Article: A Highly Effective Adaptive Switching Mean Filter Algorithm for Salt and Pepper Noise Removal. International Journal of Computer Applications 61(19):28-34, January 2013. Full text available. BibTeX

	author = {Aly Meligy and Hani M. Ibrahem and Sahar Shoman},
	title = {Article: A Highly Effective Adaptive Switching Mean Filter Algorithm for Salt and Pepper Noise Removal},
	journal = {International Journal of Computer Applications},
	year = {2013},
	volume = {61},
	number = {19},
	pages = {28-34},
	month = {January},
	note = {Full text available}


This paper presents an efficient three-stage adaptive switching mean filter to remove salt-and-pepper impulse noise from highly corrupted images. Firstly, the noise detection stage is to detect pixels as "noise pixels" and "noise-free pixels". The detected "noise pixels" will then be subjected to the second stage which is the noise cancellation, while "noise-free pixels" are retained and left unchanged. The method adaptively changes the size of the filtering window based on the number of the "noise-free pixels" in the neighborhood. For the filtering, only "noise-free pixels" in the window are considered to find the mean value. If this value is not available in the maximum window size, the last processed pixel value is used as the replacement. In the third stage, this algorithm utilizes previously processed neighboring pixel values to get better image quality as the really processed noise pixel used as a noise –free pixel for the next noisy pixel processing. Experimental results clearly show that the proposed algorithm outperforms many of the existing methods in terms of visual quality and quantitative measures. The advantage of the proposed method is that it works well for high-density salt & pepper noise even up to a noise percentage of 95%.


  • Wei Li, Yanxia Sun and Shengjian Chen ,"A New Algorithm for Removal of High-density Salt and Pepper Noises,", IEEE 2009.
  • I. Pitas and A. N. Venetsanopoulos," Nonlinear Digital Filters Principles and Applications," Norwell, MA: Kluwer, 1990.
  • Astola J and Kuosmanen P, "Fundamentals of Nonlinear Digital Filtering" Boca Raton , " FL: CRC, 1997.
  • Ko S J and Lee Y H, "Center weighted median filters and their applications to image enhancement," IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems, vol. 38, 1991, pp 984-993.
  • Arce G and Paredes J, "Recursive Weighted Median Filters Admitting Negative Weights and Their Optimization," IEEE Trans. on Signal Proc. , Vol. 48, 2000, pp 768-779.
  • Raymond H. Chan, Chung-Wa Ho, and Mila Nikolova, "Salt-and pepper noise removal by median-type noise detectors and detail preserving regularization", IEEE Trans. Image Processing, vol. 14,no. 10, pp. 1479-1485, October 2005.
  • H. Hwang and R. A. Haddad, "Adaptive median filters: New algorithms and results", IEEE Trans. Image Processing, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 499-502, April 1995.
  • Haidi Ibrahim, Nicholas Sia Pik Kong and Theam Foo Ng," Simple Adaptive Median Filter for the Removal of Impulse Noise from Highly Corrupted Images," IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 54, No. 4, November 2008.
  • K. S. Srinivasan and D. Ebenezer," A New Fast and Efficient Decision-Based Algorithm for Removal of High-Density Impulse Noises," IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING LETTERS, VOL. 14, NO. 3, MARCH 2007.
  • Pei-Yin Chen and Chih-Yuan Lien, " An Efficient Edge-Preserving Algorithm for Removal of Salt-and-Pepper Noise,"IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING LETTERS, VOL. 15, 2008.
  • S. Esakkirajan and T. Veerakumar et. al. ," Removal of High Density Salt and Pepper Noise Through Modified Decision Based Unsymmetric Trimmed Median Filter," IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING LETTERS, VOL. 18, NO. 5, MAY 2011.
  • Xiao Kang, Wei Zhu et. al. " A Novel Adaptive Switching Median Filter for Laser Image Based on Local Salt and Pepper Noise Density," IEEE 2011.