CFP last date
22 July 2024
Call for Paper
August Edition
IJCA solicits high quality original research papers for the upcoming August edition of the journal. The last date of research paper submission is 22 July 2024

Submit your paper
Know more
Reseach Article

A Review of English to Indian Language Translator: Anusaaraka

Published on March 2014 by Kanika, Ankur, Divyanjali, Shalini Mittal
International Conference on Advances in Computer Engineering and Applications
Foundation of Computer Science USA
ICACEA - Number 1
March 2014
Authors: Kanika, Ankur, Divyanjali, Shalini Mittal

Kanika, Ankur, Divyanjali, Shalini Mittal . A Review of English to Indian Language Translator: Anusaaraka. International Conference on Advances in Computer Engineering and Applications. ICACEA, 1 (March 2014), 1-6.

author = { Kanika, Ankur, Divyanjali, Shalini Mittal },
title = { A Review of English to Indian Language Translator: Anusaaraka },
journal = { International Conference on Advances in Computer Engineering and Applications },
issue_date = { March 2014 },
volume = { ICACEA },
number = { 1 },
month = { March },
year = { 2014 },
issn = 0975-8887,
pages = { 1-6 },
numpages = 6,
url = { /proceedings/icacea/number1/15607-1415/ },
publisher = {Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA},
address = {New York, USA}
%0 Proceeding Article
%1 International Conference on Advances in Computer Engineering and Applications
%A Kanika
%A Ankur
%A Divyanjali
%A Shalini Mittal
%T A Review of English to Indian Language Translator: Anusaaraka
%J International Conference on Advances in Computer Engineering and Applications
%@ 0975-8887
%N 1
%P 1-6
%D 2014
%I International Journal of Computer Applications

In this paper, we present the concept of Anusaaraka. Starting with a small introduction of natural language processing to understand the entire concept we move on to detailed overview of Anusaaraka. India is very rich when it comes to languages hence entirely different rules are needed to be incorporated for each language. Indian languages are free-word order languages hence should be dealt accordingly [16]. Anusaaraka is a kind of language translator. It is designed to translate English to any Indian language. Outlines of some other Indian language translators developed during recent years are also given in short to provide a overview of the progress in the field of translation. The key features of each one are presented and analyzed to meet the requirements of an ideal system.

  1. Akshar Bharti, Vineet Chaitanya and Rajeev Sangal, 1994 Natural Language Processing: A Panini Perspective, Prentice Hall of India.
  2. Alberto Dominguez, Fernando Cuetos and Juan Segui, 2000. Morphological processing in word recognition: A review with particular reference to Spanish data, Psicologica, International journal on methodology and and experimental phsycology, volume 21, 375-401.
  3. Natural language processing, chapter 2, Lkit: a toolkit for natural language interface construction.
  4. Peter Norvig and Stuart J. Russell, 1994, Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, 3rd edition.
  5. Levinson, Stephen C. (1983) Pragmatics. Cambridge University Press.
  6. Ding Liu and Daniel Gildea, 2010. Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computational Linguistics (COLING-10), Beijing.
  7. Vera Aleksi? & Gregor Thurmair, 2011: Personal Translator at WMT 2011 – a rule-based MT system with hybrid components. [WMT 2011] Proceedings of the 6th Workshop onStatistical Machine Translation, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, July 30-31, 2011; pp. 303-308.
  8. Antony P. J. and Dr. Sonam K. P. , 2012. Computational Morphology and Natural Language Parsing for Indian Languages: A Literature Survey, International Journal on Scientific and Engineering Research, volume 3, issue 3.
  9. Chaudhury, S. , Rao, A. ; Sharma, D. M. , 2010. Anusaaraka: An expert system based machine translation system, International Conference on Natural Language Processing and Knowledge Engineering, 1-6.
  10. http://pune. cdac. in/html/aai/mantra. aspx
  11. http://tdil. mit. gov. in/research_effort. aspx
  12. Patten T. , Jacobs P. , 1994. Natural Language Processing, volume 9, issue 1.
  13. Shambhavi. B. R, Dr. Ramakanth Kumar P, Srividya K, Jyothi B J, Spoorti Kundargi, and Varsha Shastri G, 2011. Kannada Morphological Analyser and Generator Using Trie, International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security (IJCSNS), VOL. 11 No. 1
  14. Choudhary and Narayan Kumar, 2006. A computational framework for the verb morphology of great Andamanese, JNU.
  15. K. Beesley, and L. Karttunen, 2003. Finite State Morphology, CA: CSLI Publications, Stanford.
  16. Akshar Bharati and Rajeev Sangal, Parsing free word order languages in the Paninian framework, www. ldc. upenn. edu/acl/P/P93/P93-1015. pdf.
  17. S. Rajendran, "Parsing in Tamil", Language in India, www. languageinindia. com Volume 6 : 8 August, 2006.
  18. Akshar Bharati, M Gupta, Vineet Yadav, Karthik Gali, and Dipti M. Sharma, 2009. Simple Parser for Indian Languages in a Dependency Framework, In Proceedings of the Third Linguistic Annotation Workshop (LAWIII), SIGANN, 47th ACL - 4th IJCNLP, Singapore.
  19. Uma Parameshwari Rao G, Parameshwari K: CALTS, University of Hyderabad, On the description of morphological data for morphological analyzers and generators: A case of Telugu, Tamil and Kannada.
  20. Sobha Lalitha Devi and Menaka S, May 2011. Semantic Representation of Causality, Special Volume: Problems of Parsing in Indian Languages.
  21. Bharati, Akshar, et. al, 2002. Anusaaraka: Overcoming the Language Barrier in India, appeared in "Anuvad", Sage Publishers, New Delhi.
  22. Amba P. Kulkarni, 2003. Design and Architecture of 'Anusaaraka'- An Approach to Machine Translation Satyam Techical Review, vol 3.
  23. Gregor Thurmair. 2004. Using corpus information to improve MT quality. In Yuste Rodrigo, Elia (ed) Paris: ELRA (European Language Resources Association): Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Language Resources for Translation Work, Reseach & Training (LR4Trans-III).
  24. Gregor Thurmair, 2009. Comparing different architectures of hybrid Machine Translation systems. Proceedings of the Twelft Machine Translation Summit. Ottawa, Canada. 340-348.
  25. Galley, Michel, Mark Hopkins, Kevin Knight, and Daniel Marcu. 2004. What's in a translation rule? In Proceedings of NAACL-04, pages 273–280.
Index Terms

Computer Science
Information Sciences


Anusaaraka Local Word Grouping Free Word Order Languages Paninian Model