Call for Paper - November 2019 Edition
IJCA solicits original research papers for the November 2019 Edition. Last date of manuscript submission is October 21, 2019. Read More

Data Hiding in encrypted H. 264/AVC Video Streams

Print
PDF
IJCA Proceedings on International Conference on Emerging Trends in Computing and Communication
© 2018 by IJCA Journal
ICETCC 2017 - Number 3
Year of Publication: 2018
Authors:
Nikita Pawar
Nayana Patil
Babasaheb Suryavanshi
Rina Bora

Nikita Pawar, Nayana Patil, Babasaheb Suryavanshi and Rina Bora. Article: Data Hiding in encrypted H.264/AVC Video Streams. IJCA Proceedings on International Conference on Emerging Trends in Computing and Communication ICETCC 2017(3):8-12, June 2018. Full text available. BibTeX

@article{key:article,
	author = {Nikita Pawar and Nayana Patil and Babasaheb Suryavanshi and Rina Bora},
	title = {Article: Data Hiding in encrypted H.264/AVC Video Streams},
	journal = {IJCA Proceedings on International Conference on Emerging Trends in Computing and Communication},
	year = {2018},
	volume = {ICETCC 2017},
	number = {3},
	pages = {8-12},
	month = {June},
	note = {Full text available}
}

Abstract

Digital video sometimes needs to be stored and processed in an encrypted format to maintain security and privacy. For the purpose of content notation and/or tampering detection, it is necessary to perform data hiding in these encrypted videos. In this way, data hiding in encrypted domain without decryption preserves the con?dentiality of the content. In addition, it is more ef?cient without decryption followed by data hiding and re-encryption. In this paper, a novel scheme of data hiding directly in the encrypted version of H. 264/AVC video stream is proposed, which includes the following three parts, i. e. , H. 264/AVC video encryption, data embedding, and data extraction. By analyzing the property of H. 264/AVC codec, the codewords of intraprediction modes, the codewords of motion vector differences, and the codewords of residual coef?cients are encrypted with stream ciphers. Then, a data hider may embed additional data in the encrypted domain by using codeword substitution technique, without knowing the original video content. In order to adapt to different application scenarios, data extraction can be done either in the encrypted domain or in the decrypted domain. Furthermore, video ?le size is strictly preserved even after encryption and data embedding.

References

  • W. J. Lu, A. Varna, and M. Wu, "Secure video processing: Problems and challenges," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Acoust. Speech, Signal Processing, Prague, Czech Republic, May 2011, pp. 5856–5859.
  • B. Zhao, W. D. Kou, and H. Li, "Effective watermarking scheme in the encrypted domain for buyer-seller watermarking protocol," Inf. Sci. , vol. 180, no. 23, pp. 4672–4684, 2010.
  • P. J. Zheng and J. W. Huang, "Walsh-Hadamard transform in the homomorphic encrypted domain and its application in image watermarking," in Proc. 14th Inf. Hiding Conf. , Berkeley, CA, USA, 2012, pp. 1–15.
  • W. Puech, M. Chaumont, and O. Strauss, "A reversible data hiding method for encrypted images," Proc. SPIE, vol. 6819, pp. 68191E-1–68191E9, Jan. 2008.
  • X. P. Zhang, "Reversible data hiding in encrypted image," IEEE Signal Process. Lett. , vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 255–258, Apr. 2011.
  • W. Hong, T. S. Chen, and H. Y. Wu, "An improved reversible data hiding in encrypted images using side match," IEEE Signal Process. Lett. , vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 199–202, Apr. 2012
  • X. P. Zhang, "Separable reversible data hiding in encrypted image," IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Security, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 826–832, Apr. 2012.
  • K. D. Ma, W. M. Zhang, X. F. Zhao, N. Yu, and F. Li, "Reversible data hiding in encrypted images by reserving room before encryption," IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Security, vol. 8,no. 3,pp. 553–562,Mar. 2013.
  • A. V. Subramanyam, S. Emmanuel, and M. S. Kankanhalli, "Robust watermarking of compressed and encrypted JPEG2000 images," IEEE Trans. Multimedia, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 703–716, Jun. 2012.
  • S. G. Lian, Z. X. Liu, and Z. Ren, "Commutative encryption and watermarking in video compression," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. , vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 774–778, Jun. 2007.
  • S. W. Park and S. U. Shin, "Combined scheme of encryption and watermarking in H. 264/scalable video coding (SVC)," New Directions Intel. Interact. Multimedia, vol. 142, no. 1, pp. 351–361, 2008.
  • T. Wiegand, G. J. Sullivan, G. Bjontegaard, and A. Luthra, "Overview of the H. 264/AVC video coding standard," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. , vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 560–576, Jul. 2003.
  • S. G. Lian, Z. X. Liu, Z. Ren, and H. L. Wang, "Secure advanced video coding based on selective encryption algorithms," IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. , vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 621–629, May 2006.
  • Z. Shahid, M. Chaumont, and W. Puech, "Fast protection of H. 264/AVC by selective encryption of CAVLC and CABAC for I and P frames,"IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. , vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 565–576, May 2011.
  • M. N. Asghar and M. Ghanbari, "An efficient security system for CABAC bin-strings of H. 264/SVC," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. , vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 425–437, Mar. 2013.
  • T. Stutz and A. Uhl, "A survey of H. 264 AVC/SVC encryption,"IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. , vol. 22, no. 3pp. 325–339, Mar. 2012.
  • Advanced Video Coding for Generic Audiovisual Services, ITU, Geneva, Switzerland, and Mar. 2005.
  • J. G. Jiang, Y. Liu, Z. P. Su, G. Zhang, and S. Xing, "An improved selective encryption for H. 264 video based on intra prediction mode scrambling," J. Multimedia, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 464-472, 2010.
  • I. E. G. Richardson, H. 264 and MPEG-4 Video Compression: Video Coding for Next Generation Multimedia. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley, 2003.
  • D. K. Zou and J. A. Bloom, "H. 264 stream replacement watermarking with CABAC encoding," in Proc. IEEE ICME, Singapore, Jul. 2010, pp. 117–121.
  • D. W. Xu and R. D. Wang, "Watermarking in H. 264/AVC compressed domain using Exp-Golomb code words mapping," Opt. Eng. , vol. 50,no. 9, p. 097402, 2011.
  • D. W. Xu, R. D. Wang, and J. C. Wang, "Prediction mode modulated data-hiding algorithm for H. 264/AVC," J. Real-Time Image Process. ,vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 205–214, 2012.
  • T. Shanableh, "Data hiding in MPEG video files using multivariate regression and flexible macro block ordering," IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Security, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 455–464, Apr. 2012.