CFP last date
20 March 2024
Call for Paper
April Edition
IJCA solicits high quality original research papers for the upcoming April edition of the journal. The last date of research paper submission is 20 March 2024

Submit your paper
Know more
Reseach Article

Automatic off-Line Signature Verification Systems: A Review

Published on None 2011 by Srikanta Pal, Michael Blumenstein, Umapada Pal
International Conference and Workshop on Emerging Trends in Technology
Foundation of Computer Science USA
ICWET - Number 14
None 2011
Authors: Srikanta Pal, Michael Blumenstein, Umapada Pal

Srikanta Pal, Michael Blumenstein, Umapada Pal . Automatic off-Line Signature Verification Systems: A Review. International Conference and Workshop on Emerging Trends in Technology. ICWET, 14 (None 2011), 20-27.

author = { Srikanta Pal, Michael Blumenstein, Umapada Pal },
title = { Automatic off-Line Signature Verification Systems: A Review },
journal = { International Conference and Workshop on Emerging Trends in Technology },
issue_date = { None 2011 },
volume = { ICWET },
number = { 14 },
month = { None },
year = { 2011 },
issn = 0975-8887,
pages = { 20-27 },
numpages = 8,
url = { /proceedings/icwet/number14/2169-is329/ },
publisher = {Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA},
address = {New York, USA}
%0 Proceeding Article
%1 International Conference and Workshop on Emerging Trends in Technology
%A Srikanta Pal
%A Michael Blumenstein
%A Umapada Pal
%T Automatic off-Line Signature Verification Systems: A Review
%J International Conference and Workshop on Emerging Trends in Technology
%@ 0975-8887
%N 14
%P 20-27
%D 2011
%I International Journal of Computer Applications

The use of biometric technologies for human identity verification is growing rapidly in civilized society and showing its advancement towards the usability of biometrics for security. Off-line signature verification is considered as a behavioral characteristic based biometric trait in the field of security and the prevention of fraud. So, offline signatures are extensively used as a means of personal verification and identification. Manual signature-based authentication of a large number of documents is a very difficult and time consuming task. Consequently for many years, in the field of protected communication and financial applications, we have observed an explosive growth in biometric personal authentication systems that are closely connected with measurable physical unique characteristics (hand geometry, iris scan, finger prints or DNA).. Human signatures also provide secure means for confirmation and authorization in legal documents. So nowadays, automatic signature verification becomes an essential component. In order to convey the state-of-the-art in the field to researchers, in this paper we present a survey of off-line signature verification systems.

  1. B. Majhi, Y.S.Reddy, D.P.Babu, “Novel Features for Off-line Signature Verification”, IJCCC- 2006, Vol. I, pp. 17-24.
  2. M.A. Ferrer, J.B. Alonso and C. M. Travieso, "Off-line Geometric Parameters for Automatic Signature Verification Using Fixed-Point Arithmetic", PAMI-June, 2005, pp. 993-997.
  3. S. Chen and S. Srihari, “Use of Exterior Contour and Shape Features in Off-line Signature Verification”, ICDAR- 2005, pp. 1280-1284.
  4. Hai Rong Lv, Wen Jun Yin, Jin Dong, “Off-line Signature Verification based on deformable grid partition and Hidden Markov Models”, ICME-2009, pp. 374-377.
  5. S.Madabusi, V.Srinivas, S.Bhaskaran,M. Balasubramanian, “On-line and off-line signature verification using relative slope algorithm”, IMS-2005, pp. 11-15.
  6. F.A.Fernandez, J. Fierrez, M. M.Diaz, J.O.Garcia, “Fusion of Static Image and Dynamic Information for Signature Verification”, ICIP-2009, pp. 2725-2728.
  7. Xue Ling, Yunhong Wang, Zhaoxiang Zhang, Yiding Wang, “On-line signature verification based on Gabor features”, WOCC-2010, 2010, pp. 1-4.
  8. Simina Emerich, Eugen Lupu, Corneliu Rusu. “On-line Signature Recognition Approach Based on Wavelets and Support Vecor Machines”, AQTR-2010, 2010, pp.1-4.
  9. A. Kholmatov, and B. Yanikoglu, “Identity Authentication using improved online signature verification method”, Pattern Recognition Letters, 2005.
  10. T.S.Ong, W.H.Khoh, A.B.J.Teoh, ‘‘Dynamic Handwritten Signature Verification based on Statistical Quantization Mechanism”, ICCET 2009, pp. 312 - 316.
  11. M. Kalera, S. Srihari, and A. Xu. “Offline signature verification and identification using distance statistics”, IJPRAI- 2004, pp.1339-1360.
  12. M.T.Das, L.C.Dulger, Off-line signature verification with PSO-NN algorithm, ISCIS-2007.
  13. I.Pottier and G.Burel,‘‘Identification and Authentication of Handwritten Signatures with a Connectionist Approach”, IEEE Conf. on Neural Networks, pp. 2948–2951, July 1994.
  14. B. Fang, C.H. Leung, Y.Y. Tang, K.W. Tse, P.C.K. Kwok and Y.K. Wong, "Off-line signature verification by the tracking of feature and stroke positions", Pattern Recognition, 2003, pp. 91–101.
  15. R. Abbas and V. Ciesielski, “A Prototype System for Off-line Signature Verification Using Multilayered Feed forward Neural Networks”, February 1995.
  16. L. Batista, D. Rivard, R. Sabourin, E. Granger, and P. Maupin. State of the art in off-line signature verification. In B. Verma and M. Blumenstein, editors, Pattern Recognition Technologies and Applications: Recent Advances. IGI Global, 1st edition, 2007.
  17. E. J. R. Justino, F. Bortolozzi, and R. Sabourin, "A comparison of SVM and HMM classifiers in the off-line signature verification", PRL, vol. 26, 2005, pp.1377-1385.
  18. H. Weiping, Y. Xiufen and W. Kejun, “A survey of off-line signature verification”, ICIMA 2004, pp. 536 - 541.
  19. M. Hanmandlu, M. H. M. Yusof, and V. K. Madasu, "Off-line signature verification and forgery detection using fuzzy modelling”, PR-2005, vol. 38, pp. 341-356.
  20. M. Ferrer, J.Alonso, and C. Travieso, "Offline geometric parameters for automatic signature verification using fixed-point arithmetic", PAMI-2005, vol. 27, pp. 993-997.
  21. K. Huang and H. Yan, "Off-line signature verification using structural feature correspondence, "Pattern Recognition, 2002, vol. 35, pp. 2467-2477.
  22. V.Nguyen, M.Blumenstein, V. Muthukkumarasamy G. Leedham, “Off-line Signature Verification Using Enhanced Modified Direction Features in Conjunction with Neural Classifiers and Support Vector Machines”, ICDAR-2007 pp. 734 – 738.
  23. I.A. Ismail, M.A.Ramadan, T. S. El-Danaf and A.H. Samak, “An Efficient Off line Signature Identification Method Based On Fourier Descriptor and Chain Codes”, 2010, (IJCSNS-2010),VOL.10 No.5, pp.29-35.
  24. E. Justino, E. Bortolozzi, R Saburin, “ Off-line Signature Verification Using HMM for Random, Simple and Skilled Forgeries,” ICDAR 2001, vol.1, pp. 105-110.
  25. M.A.M. Balbed, S.M.S. Ahmad, A. Shakil, “ANOVA-Based Feature Analysis and Selection in HMM-Based Offline Signature Verification System”, 2009 Conference on Innovative Technologies in Intelligent Systems and Industrial Applications, 2009, (CITISIA-2009).pp. 66-69.
  26. E.M.Nel, J. du Preez and B. Herbst, Estimating the pen trajectories of static signatures using hidden Markov models. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 2005, 27, 1733-1746.
  27. Alan McCabe and Jarrod Trevathan, “Markov Model-based Handwritten Signature Verification”, IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing, 2008, pp. 173-179.
  28. S.M. S. Ahmad, A. Shakil, M.A.M. Balbed, “Study on the Effect of Number of Training Samples on HMM Based Offline and Online Signature Verification Systems”, International Symposium on Information Technology, 2008, (ITSIM 2008), pp. Page(s): 1- 6.
  29. S.M. S. Ahmad, A. Shakil, M.A.M. Balbed, “Offline Signature Verification System using Hidden Markov Model in MATLAB Environment”, 7th WSEAS Int. Conf. on Applied Computer & Applied Computational Science (ACACOS-2008), 2008.
  30. F. A. Fernandez, M. C. Fairhurst, J. Fierrez and J O. Garcia, “Impact Of Signature Legibility and Signature type in Off-line Signature Verification”, Biometrics Symposium, 2007, pp. 1-6.
  31. L. Batista, E. Granger and R. Sabourin, “A Multi-Hypothesis Approach for Off-Line Signature Verification with HMMs”, 10th International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition, 2009, (ICDAR-2009), pp. 1315 -1319.
  32. S. Madabusi, V. Srinivas, S.Bhaskaran, M Balasubramanian, “On-line and off-line signature verification using relative slope algorithm”, IEEE International Workshop on Measurement Systems for Homeland Security, Contraband Detection and Personal Safety Workshop, 2005,
  33. S. Armand, M. Blumenstein and V. Muthukkumarasamy, “Off-line Signature Verification based on the Modified Direction Feature” ICPR-2006, pp.509-512.
  34. C. Senol, and T. Yildirim, “Signature Verification Using Conic Section Function Neural Network”, In 20th International Symposium Computer and Information Sciences, 2005, pp. 524-532.
  35. Oz.C. Signature Recognition and Verification with Artificial Neural Network Using Moment Invariant Method, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2005, 3497, 195-202.
  36. A. McCabe, J. Trevathan and W. Read Neural Network-based Handwritten Signature Verification, Journal of Computers, 2008, vol. 8, Issue 3.
  37. M. T. Das and L. C. Dulger, “Off-line signature verification with pso-nn algorithm”, 22nd international symposium on Computer and information sciences, 2007, pp. 1-6.
  38. J. A. Mahar, M. H. Mahar,M. K. Khan, " Comparative Study of Feature Extraction Methods with K-NN for Off Line Signature Verification”, International conformance on emerging Technologies, 2006, pp.115-120.
  39. L. S. Oliveira, E. Justino, and R. Sabourin, “Off-line signature verification using writer-independent approach,” IJCNN-2007, pp. 2539–2544.
  40. E.Ozgunduz, T.Senturk and E. Karsligil, “Off-line signature verification and recognition by support vector machine”, Paper presented at the European Signal Processing Conference, 2005.
  41. V. Nguyen, M. Blumenstein, G. Leedham, “Global Features for the Off-Line Signature Verification Problem”, ICDAR-2009, pp.1300-1304.
  42. E.F. Martinez, A. Sanchez, and J. Velez, ‘‘support vector machines versus multi-layer perceptrons for efficient off-line signature recognition ’’, Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, 2006, 19(6), pp. 693-704.
  43. V. Mottl, M. Lange, V. Sulimova, A. Yermakov, “ Signature verification based on fusion of on-line and off-line kernels” , 19th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, 2008. (ICPR-2008), pp. 1-4.
  44. G Rigoll, A. Kosmala, ‘‘A Systematic Comparison Between On-line and Off-line Methods for Signature Verification with HMM,” PR-1998, vol.2, pp.1755-1757.
  45. C.R.Prashanth, K.B Raja, K.R Venugopal, L.M Patnaik “Standard Scores Correlation based Off-line Signature Verification System”, (ICACT-2009), pp.49-53.
  46. B.Schafer, S.Viriri, “An Off-Line Signature Verification System”, 2009, (ICSIPA- 2009), pp.95-100.
  47. Robert Larkins, Michael Mayo, “Adaptive Feature Thresholding for Off-line Signature Verification”, 23rd International Conference on Image and Vision Computing, (IVCNZ-2008), 2008, pp, 1 - 6.
  48. B. Fang and Y. Tang, “Improved class statistics estimation for sparse data problems in off-line signature verification”, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 2005, 35(3), 276–286.
  49. M. Hanmandlu, M.Yusof, V.Madasu, “Off-line signature verification and forgery detection using fuzzy modeling”, Pattern Recognition, 2005, 38(3), 341-356.
  50. S. Chen and S. Srihari, “A New Off-line Signature Verification Method based on Graph Matching,” Proceedings International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR’06)-Volume 02, 2006, pp. 869–872.
  51. B. Zhang, “Off-Line Signature Recognition and Verification by Kernel Principal Component Self Regression,” Proceedings of International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications, 2006, pp. 28–33.
  52. D. Bertolini, L. S. Oliveira, E. Justino and R. Sabourin, “Ensemble of Classifiers for Off-line Signature Verification”, IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 2008, (SMC-2008), pp. 283- 288.
  53. F. Alonso-Fernandez, M.C. Fairhurst, J. Fierrez, and J. Ortega-Garcia. “Automatic measures for predicting performance in off-line signature”, In International Conference of Image Processing , pages 369-372.
  54. R.M. Guest. Age dependency in handwritten dynamic signature verification systems. Pattern Recognition Letter, 27(10): 2006, 1098-1104.
  55. A.P. Shanker and AN. Rajagopalan, “Off-line signature verification using dtw”, Pattern Recognition Letter, (PRL - 2007), 28(12): 2007, pp. 1407-1414.
  56. D. Impedovo and G. Pirlo, “Automatic Signature Verification: The State of the Art”, IEEE Trans. on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 2008, pp. 609-635.
  57. Dakshina Ranjan Kisku, Phalguni Gupta, Jamuna Kanta Sing, “Fusion of Multiple Matchers using SVM for Offline Signature Identification”, Communications in Computer and Information Science, 2009, Volume 58, pp. 201-208.
  58. A.K. Jain, A. Ross, S. Prabhakar, “An Introduction to Biometric Recognition”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, Special Issue on Image- and Video-Based Biometrics, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 4-20 (2004).
  59. D. Maltoni, D. Maio, A.K. Jain,S. Prabhakar, “Handbook of Fingerprint Recognition”, Second Edition, Springer (2009).
  60. J. Daugman, “How Iris Recognition Works. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology”, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 21-30 (2004).
  61. S.Z. Li, A.K. Jain, (Eds.), “Handbook of Face Recognition”, Springer Verlag (2005).
  62. H. Lv, W. Wang, C. Wang, Q. Zhuo, “ Offline Chinese Signature Verification based on Support Vector Machines”, Pattern Recognition Letters, vol. 26, no. 15, pp. 2390-2399 (2005).
  63. A. Xu, S.N.Srihari, M. K. Kalera, “ Learning Strategies for Signature Verification”, Proceedings of the International Workshop on Frontiers in Handwriting Recognition, IEEE Computer Society Press, pp. 161-166 (2004).
  64. D.R. Kisku, A. Rattani, J.K.Sing, P. Gupta, “ Offline Signature Verified with Multiple Classifiers”, An Authentic Realization. International Conference on Advances in Computing, pp. 550-553 (2008).
  65. J. Ruiz-Shulcloper and W.G. Kropatsch (Eds.) “Offline Signature Verification Using Local Interest Points and Descriptors” CIARP 2008, LNCS 5197, pp. 22–29, 2008. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008.
  66. V. Ferrari, T. Tuytelaars, L. Van Gool, “Simultaneous Object Recognition and Segmentation by Image Exploration”, In: Pajdla, T., Matas, J. (eds.) ECCV 2004. LNCS, vol. 3021, pp. 40–54. Springer, Heidelberg (2004).
  67. D. Lowe, “ Distinctive Image Features from Scale-Invariant Keypoints”, Int. Journal of Computer Vision 60(2),pp. 91–110 (2004).
  68. P. Loncomilla,J. Ruiz-del-Solar, “ Gaze Direction Determination of Opponents and Teammates in Robot Soccer”, In: A. Bredenfeld, A. Jacoff, I.Noda, Y. Takahashi (eds.) RoboCup 2005. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 4020, pp. 230–242. Springer, Heidelberg (2006).
  69. P. Loncomilla, J.Ruiz-del-Solar, “A Fast Probabilistic Model for Hypothesis Rejection in SIFT-Based Object Recognition”, In: J.F. Martínez-Trinidad, J.A. Carrasco Ochoa, J. Kittler, (eds.) CIARP 2006. LNCS, vol. 4225, pp. 696–705. Springer, Heidelberg (2006).
  70. Mikolajczyk, K., Schmid, C.: Scale & Affine Invariant Interest Point Detectors. Int. Journal of Computer Vision 60(1), 63–96 (2004).
  71. K.Mikolajczyk, C.Schmid, “A performance evaluation of local descriptors”, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 27(10), 1615–1630 (2005).
  72. K.Mikolajczyk, T. Tuytelaars, C. Schmid, A. Zisserman, J. Matas, F. Schaffalitzky, T. Kadir, L. Van Gool, “ A Comparison of Affine Region Detectors”, Int. Journal of Computer Vision 65(1-2), 43–72 (2005).
  73. J. Ruiz-del-Solar, P. Loncomilla, C. Devia, “ A New Approach for Fingerprint Verification based on Wide Baseline Matching using Local Interest Points and Descriptors”, In: Mery, D., Rueda, L. (eds.) PSIVT 2007. LNCS, vol. 4872, pp. 586–599. Springer, Heidelberg(2007).
  74. D. Bertolini, L.S.Oliveira, E.Justino, R.Sabourin, “Reducing forgeries in writer-independent off line signature verification through ensemble of classifiers”, Pattern Recognition, (PR-2010), 43 (2010) 387-396.
  75. D. Impedovo, G. Pirlo, Automatic signature verification: the state of the art, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics—Part C 38 (5) (2008) 609–635.
  76. K. Jackowski, M. Wozniak, Algorithm of designing compound recognition system on the basis of combining classifiers with simultaneous splitting feature space into competence areas, Pattern Analysis and Applications, 2008.
  77. C-L. Liu, Classifier combination based on confidence transformation, Pattern Recognition 38 (1) (2005) 11–28.
  78. E. Ozgunduz, T. Senturk, E. Karsligil, Off-line signature verification and recognition by support vector machine, in: 2005 European Signal Processing Conference, 2005.
  79. Samit Biswas, Tai-hoon Kim, Debnath Bhattacharyya, “Features Extraction and Verification of Signature Image using Clustering Technique”, International Journal of Smart Home, Vol.4, No.3, July, 2010, pp. 43-56.
  80. Rafael C. Gonzalez, Richard E. Woods “Digital image Processing ”, ISBN 81-7808-629-8.
  81. Md. Itrat Bin Shams, “Signature Recognition by Segmentation and Regular Line Detection” TENCON 2007 -2007 IEEE Region 10 Conference Volume , Issue , Page(s):1-4, Oct. 30, 2007- Nov. 2, 2007.
  82. Debnath Bhattacharyya, Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay, Poulami Das, Debashis Ganguly and Swarnendu Mukherjee , “Statistical Approach for Offline Handwritten Signature Verification” , Journal of Computer Science 4 (3): 181-185, 2008 ISSN 1549-3636, 2008
  83. Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay, Poulami Das, Debnath Bhattacharyya , “Statistical Analysis towards Image Recognition” International Journal of Multimedia and Ubiquitous Engineering,Vol. 3, No. 3, July, 2008.
  84. Azlinah Mohamed, Rohayu Yusof, Shuzlina Abdul Rahman, Sofianita Mutalib, “Baseline Extraction Algorithm for Online Signature Recognition”, Wseas Transactions on Syatems, Issue 4, Volume 8, ISSN: 1109-2777, April 2009.
  85. Alan McCabe, Jarrod Trevathan,“Handwritten Signature Verification Using Complementary Statistical Models”, Journal of computers, VOL. 4, NO. 7, pp: 670-680,July 2009.
  86. Emre Özgündüz,Tülin Sentürk and M. Elif Karslıgil,“Off-line signature verification and recognition by support vector machine”, Eusipco-2005, 4-8 September, 2005, Antalya, Turkey, pp. 113-116.
  87. H. Lv, W. Wang, C. Wang, and Q. Zhuo, “Off-line chinese signature verification based on support vector machines,” PRL, vol. 26, no. 15, pp. 2390–2399, 2005.
  88. Jun-wen Ji, Chuan-bo Chen and Xiao-su Chen, “Off-line Chinese Signature Verification Using Weighting Factor on Similarity Computation”, International Conference on e-business and Information System Security 2010, pp. 1-4.
  89. Jun-wen Ji and Xiao-su Chen,”Off-line Chinese Signature Verification Segmentation and Feature Extraction”, International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Software Engineering”, 2009, pp.1-4.
  90. Wei Tian, Yizheng Qiao, “Off-line Chinese Signature Verification based on Optimal Matching of Projection Profiles”, The Sixth World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation, 2006, (WCICA -2006), pp. 10240-10244,(IMS-2005),pp.11-15.
  91. Xiufen Ye, Weiping Hou, Weixing Feng,“Off-line Handwritten Signature Verification With Inflections Feature”, IEEE International Conference Mechatronics and Automation, 2005, (ICMA-2005), pp. 787-792.
  92. Jun-wen Ji, Zheng-ding Lu and Xiao-su Chen, “Similarity computation Based on Feature Extraction for Off line Chinese Signature Verification”, The Sixth International Conference on Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery, 2009, Vol.1, pp.291-295.
  93. Katsuhiko Ueda, “Investigation of Off-line Japanese Signature Verification Using a Pattern Matching’, Proc. of the 7th’ ICDAR-2003.
  94. S.Ghandali and M.E. Moghaddam, “A Method for Off-line Persian Signature Identification and Verification Using DWT and Image Fusion”, ISSPIT 2008, pp. 315 – 319.
  95. S.Chen, and S Srihari, combining one and two dimensional signal recognition approaches to off-line signature verification. Proc. International Conference on Document Recognition and Retrieval XIII, 2006, (pp. 606701 1- 606701 10).
  96. M. Zoghi and V. Abolghasemi, “Persian Signature Verification Using Improved Dynamic Time Warping-based Segmentation and Multivariate Autoregressive Modeling”, Workshop on Statistical Signal Processing, 2009, (SSP-2009), pp.329 – 332.
  97. W. Tian, Y. Qiao, and Z. Ma, “A New Scheme for Off-line Signature Verification Using DWT and Fuzzy Net,” Eighth ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking, and Parallel/Distributed Computing, 2007, pp. 30–35.
  98. Bence Kovari, Gergely Kiss, and Istvan Albert , “Stroke Matching for Off-line Signature Verification based on Bounding Rectangles”, 23rd International Symposium on Computer and Information Sciences, 2008, pp. 1-5.
  99. R. Jayadevan , S. Shaila and P. M Patil, “Verification of Hand Printed Signature Images Using Discrete Dyadic Wavelet Transform”, IEEE International Conference on Industrial and Information Systems, 2007,pp.8-11.
  100. M.A. Ismail, Samia Gad, “Off-line Arabic Signature Recognition and Verification”, PR-2000, pp.1727-1740.
  101. M. Piekarczyk, “Hierarchical Random Graph Model for Off-line Handwritten Signatures Recognition”, 2006, (ICCISIS- 2010), pp. 860-865.
  102. Ji Jun-wen, Chen Chuan-bo, Chen Xiao-su “Off-line Chinese Signature Verification: Using Weighting Factor on Similarity Computation”, (ICEBISS-2010), pp.1- 4.
  103. S. Armand, M. Blumenstein, V. Muthukkumarasamy, “Off-line Signature Verification using the Enhanced Modified Direction Feature and Neural-based Classification”, 2006, (IJCNN-2006), pp.684-691.
  104. S.M.S.Ahmad, A.Shakil, M.A.Faudzi, R. M. Anwar, M.A.M.Balbed “A Hybrid Statistical Modelling, Normalization and Inferencing Techniques of an Off-line Signature Verification System”, 2009, pp. 6-11.
  105. L. S. Oliveira, E. Justino, and R. Sabourin, “Off-line signature verification using writer-independent approach”, 2007, (IJCNN-2007), pp. 2539–2544, 12–17 Aug.
  106. T. Wei Q. Yizheng, M. Zhiqiang, “Off-line Signature Verification Based on Fuzzy Modelling with the Optimal Number of Rules”, IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo, 2007, 1435-1438.
  107. Maya V. Karki, K. Indira, Dr. S. Sethu Selvi, “Off-Line Signature Recognition and Verification using Neural Network”, 2007, (ICCIMA-2007), pp.307-312.
  108. K. Huang H. Yan, “ Off-line Signature Verification using Structural Feature Correspondence”, Paftern Recognition, vol. 35, Issue 11, pp. 2467-2477, NOV. 2002.
  109. H. Lv, W. Wang, C. Wang, and Q. Zhuo, “Off-line chinese signature verification based on support vector machines,” PRL-2005, vol. 26, no. 15, pp. 2390–2399.
  110. S. Chen and S. Srihari, “Use of Exterior Contours and Shape Features in Off-line Signature Verification”, ICDAR-2005, pp.1520-5263.
  111. W. Tian, Y. Qiao and Z. Ma, ‘‘Off-line Signature Verification based on Fuzzy Modeling with the Optimal Numbers of rules”, ICME-2007, pp. 1435 - 1438.
  112. S. Audet, P. Bansal, and S. Baskaran ,“Off-line signature verification using virtual support vector machines”, ECSE 526 - Artificial Intelligence, 2006.
  113. Anouar Ben Khalifa, Najoua Essoukri Ben Amara, “2nd International Conference on Fusion at the Feature Level for Person Verification Based on Off Line Handwriting and Signature”, 2008, (ICSCS-2008), pp.1 - 5.
  114. B. Kovari, Z. Kertesz, A. Major, “Off-Line Signature Verification Based on Feature Matching”, 11th International Conference on Intelligent Engineering Systems, 2007, (INES -2007), pp. 93 - 97.
  115. A.C. Ramachandra, J.S.Rao, K.B. Raja, K.R.Venugopla, L. M. Patnaik, “Robust Offline Signature Verification Based On Global Features”,(IACC-2009), pp.1173-78.
  116. J. Jun-wen, L. Zheng-ding, C. Xiao-su, “Similarity Com- putation Based on Feature Extraction for Off-line Chinese Signature Verification”, (ICFSKD-2009), pp. 291-295.
  117. H.N Prakash, D.S. Guru, “Relative Orientations of Geometric Centroids for Off-line Signature Verification”, 2009, (ICAPR -2009), pp. 201-204.
  118. J.Wen, B.Fang, Y. Y.Tang and T.P.Zhang, “Offline Signature Verification:A New Rotation Invariant Approach”, 2007, (ICSMC-2007), PP: 3583 - 3587.
  119. J. Zhang, X. Zeng, Y. Lu1, L. Zhang, M. Li, “A Novel Off-line Signature Verification Based on One-class-one network” Third International Conference on Natural Computation, 2007, (ICNC-2007), pp. 590 – 594.
  120. M.Yang, Z.Yin, Z. Zhong, S. Wang, P. Chen and Y. Xu, “A Contourlet-based Method for Handwritten Signature Verification” , Proc. of the IEEE International Conference on Automation and Logistics, 2007, pp.18 – 21.
Index Terms

Computer Science
Information Sciences


Off-line Signature verification on-line signature verification biometrics authentication systems