Call for Paper - July 2022 Edition
IJCA solicits original research papers for the July 2022 Edition. Last date of manuscript submission is June 20, 2022. Read More

Performance Evaluation of Natural Language Text Watermarking using Encryption Techniques

International Journal of Computer Applications
Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA
Year of Publication: 2015
Manmeet Kaur, Kamna Mahajan

Manmeet Kaur and Kamna Mahajan. Article: Performance Evaluation of Natural Language Text Watermarking using Encryption Techniques. International Journal of Computer Applications 129(3):22-28, November 2015. Published by Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA. BibTeX

	author = {Manmeet Kaur and Kamna Mahajan},
	title = {Article: Performance Evaluation of Natural Language Text Watermarking using Encryption Techniques},
	journal = {International Journal of Computer Applications},
	year = {2015},
	volume = {129},
	number = {3},
	pages = {22-28},
	month = {November},
	note = {Published by Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA}


Advances in communication technologies have made it easier to distribute and communicate information effectively. The increasing use of Internet has caused the information to be paperless and all the working to be electronic as compared to the conventional paper distribution. As the information is available on internet, it is liable to many kinds of threats like illegal copying, distribution, tampering, authentication etc. Till now, the electronic information can be secured by using different techniques like steganography, cryptography, watermarking. In text watermarking various techniques are implemented for English, Chinese, Turkish and Arabic language text using different methods. This paper includes an improved text watermarking technique for English language text documents. This paper proposes a technique which uses natural language components and UMARAM encryption technique. This study has focussed on grammatical rules like conjunctions, pronouns and modal verbs to generate encrypted watermark message. The performance of proposed technique is compared with AES encryption technique. It has been concluded that UMARAM algorithm is robust against content modifications and at the same time, is capable of detecting tampering attacks. The resulted technique is tested over various text documents to check the effectiveness of the algorithm.


  1. Makarand L. Mali, Nitin N. Patil and J.B.Patil , “Implementation of Text Watermarking Technique Using Natural Language Watermarks”, International Conference on Communication Systems and Network Technologies,2013.
  2. Ingemar J. Cox and Matt L. Miller , “The First 50 Years of Electronic Watermarking”, EURASIP Journal on Apllied Signal Processing, Issue 2, pp. 126-132, 2002.
  3. Xinmin Zhou, Weidong Zhao, Sichun Wang and Rui Peng, “A Semi-FragileWatermarking Scheme for Content Authentication of Chinese Text Documents”, IEEE,2009.
  4. Zunera Jalil, Anwar M. Mirza and Tahir Iqbal, “A Zero-Watermarking Algorithm for Text Documents based on Structural Components” ,IEEE, 2010.
  5. Suganya Ranganathan , Ahamed Johnsha Ali, Kathirvel.K & Mohan Kumar.M,“Combined Text Watermarking”, International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies, Vol. 1 (5), 2010.
  6. Zunera Jalil and Anwar M. Mirza “A Review of Digital Watermarking Techniques for Text Documents”, International Conference on Information and Multimedia Technology,2009.
  7. Zunera Jalil, M. Arfan Jaffar and Anwar M. Mirza,“A Novel Text Watermarking Algorithm Using Image Watermark”,International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control ,Volume 7, Number3,March2011.
  8. Patil Bharati Devidas and Patil Nitin Namdeo, “Text Watermarking algorithm using structural approach”, IEEE, 2012.
  9. Mi-Young Kim, Osmar R. Zaiane, and Randy Goebel,“Natural Language Watermarking Based on Syntactic Displacement and Morphological Division”.
  10. Jaseena K.U. and Anita John, “Text Watermarking using Combined Image and Text for Authentication and Protection”, International Journal of Computer Applications, Volume 20– No.4, April 2011.
  11. Yingli Zhang and Huaiqing Qin, “A Novel Robust Text Watermarking For Word Document”, IEEE, 2010.
  12. Zhangjie Fu, Xingming Sun, Jiangang Shu and Lu Zhou, “ Plain Text Zero Knowledge Watermarking Detection Based on Asymmetric Encryption”, Advanced Science and Technology Letters ,Vol.48, 2014.
  13. Min Du and Quanyou Zhao, “Text Watermarking Algorithm based on Human Visual Redundancy”, Advanced in Information Sciences and Service Sciences, Volume 3, Number 5, June 2011.
  14. Zhangjie Fu, Xingming Sun, Jiangang Shu, Lu Zhou and Jin Wang, “Verifiable Text Watermarking Detection to Improve Security” , International Journal of Security and Its Applications ,Vol.8, No.5,2014.
  15. Leena Goyal, Manoj raman, Prateek Divan and Mukaesh Kumar Vijay, “ A Robust Method for Integrity Protection Of Digital Data in Text Document Watermarking”, International Journal for Innovative Research in Science & Technology, Volume 1, Issue 6, November 2014.
  16. Chee Hon Lew and Chaw Seng Woo, “Design and Implementation of Text based Watermarking combined with Pseudo-Random Number Generator(PRNG) for Cryptography Application”, Latest Trends in Applied Computational Science.
  17. Omar Tayan, Yasser M. Alginahi and Muhammed N. Kabir, “An Adaptive Zero-Watermarking Approach for Authentication and Protection of Sensitive Text Documents”.
  18. Sukhpreet Kaur and Geetanjali Babbar, “A Zero-Watermarking algorithm on multiple occurrences of letters for text tampering detection”, International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering, Vol. 5, No. 05 ,May 2013.
  19. Sonia Bajaj and Manshi Shukla, “Performance Evaluation of an approach for Secret data transfer using interpolation and LSB substitution with Watermarking”, International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies, Vol. 5 (5) , 2014.
  20. Priyanka Verma, Rakhshan Anjum Shaikh and Ketki Deshmukh, “ A Novel Approach to Angle based Invisible Text Watermarking with EBCDIC Coding”, International Journal of Computer Applications, Volume61,No.20, January 2013.
  21. Manmeet Kaur and Kamna Mahajan, “ An Existential review on Text Watermarking Techniques”, International Journal of Computer Applications, Volume120, No.18, June 2015.
  22. G. Ramesh and R.Umarani, “UMARAM: A novel Fast encryption algorithm for data security in Loacal Area Network”, ICCCCT,2010.


Text watermarking, Copyright Protection, Security, Encryption, Tampering, UMARAM, AES, robustness.