Call for Paper - September 2020 Edition
IJCA solicits original research papers for the September 2020 Edition. Last date of manuscript submission is August 20, 2020. Read More

Middleware, Operating System and Wireless Sensor Networks for Internet of Things

International Journal of Computer Applications
Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA
Year of Publication: 2017
Ritvik Verma, Kartikey Srivastava

Ritvik Verma and Kartikey Srivastava. Middleware, Operating System and Wireless Sensor Networks for Internet of Things. International Journal of Computer Applications 167(11):11-17, June 2017. BibTeX

	author = {Ritvik Verma and Kartikey Srivastava},
	title = {Middleware, Operating System and Wireless Sensor Networks for Internet of Things},
	journal = {International Journal of Computer Applications},
	issue_date = {June 2017},
	volume = {167},
	number = {11},
	month = {Jun},
	year = {2017},
	issn = {0975-8887},
	pages = {11-17},
	numpages = {7},
	url = {},
	doi = {10.5120/ijca2017914356},
	publisher = {Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA},
	address = {New York, USA}


With the evolution of Internet of Things (IoT), various sectors stand at the door of revolution. Recently, there has been a number of proposals for the model of IoT. Despite it, we do not have a reference model where all the key components like supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA), machine-to-machine (M2M) communication, wireless sensor networks (WSN) and RFID identification is addressed. This paper reviews the architecture, requirements and solutions available for framework, middleware, operating system (OS) and, WSN and MANET, in regard to IoT environment. In addition to this, it highlights the issues and the solutions that can be integrated in the model, like software defined networking (SDN).


  1. H. Zhou, The Internet of Things in the Cloud: A Middleware Perspective, 1st ed. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC, 2012.
  2. C. Perera, A. B. Zaslavsky, P. Christen, and D. Georgakopoulos, “Context aware computing for the Internet of Things: A survey,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 414–454, May 2013.
  3. K. Aberer, M. Hauswirth, A. Salehi, “Middleware support for the Internet of Things,” In: 5th GI/ITG KuVS Fachgespräch Drahtlose Sensornetze, Berlin, Germany, Sep. 2006.
  4. A. Gómez-Goiri, D. López-de-Ipiña. “A Triple Space-Based Semantic Distributed Middleware for Internet of Things,” In LNCS Vol. 6385, pp. 447-458. Springer, July 2010.
  5. F. Mattern, C. Flörkemeier. From the Internet of Computers to the Internet of Things. Informatik-Spektrum, 33(2), 2010.
  6. K. Paridel, E. Bainomugisha, Y. Vanrompay, Y. Berbers, and W.D. Meuter, "Middleware for the Internet of Things, Design Goals and Challenges", ECEASST Journal, ISSN 1863-2122, 2010.
  7. S. Krco, B. Pokric, and F. Carrez, “Designing IoT architecture(s): A European perspective,” in Proc. IEEE WF-IoT, 2014, pp. 79–84.
  8. EU FP7 Internet of Things Architecture Project, Sep. 18, 2014. [ Online ]. Available:
  9. Z. Yang et al., “Study and application on the architecture and key technologies for IOT,” in Proc. ICMT, 2011, pp. 747–751.
  10. M. Wu, T. J. Lu, F. Y. Ling, J. Sun, and H. Y. Du, “Research on the architecture of Internet of Things,” in Proc. 3rd ICACTE, 2010 , pp. V5-484–V5-487.
  11. L. Tan and N. Wang, “Future Internet: The Internet of Things,” in Proc. 3rd ICACTE, 2010, pp. V5-376–V5-380.
  12. M. A. Chaqfeh and N. Mohamed, “Challenges in middleware solutions for the Internet of Things,” in Proc. Int. Conf. CTS, 2012, pp. 21–26.
  13. D. Evans, “The Internet of things: How the next evolution of the Internet is changing everything,” CISCO, San Jose, CA, USA, White Paper, 2011.
  14. J. Gantz and D. Reinsel, “The digital universe in 2020: Big data, bigger digital shadows, and biggest growth in the far east,” IDC iView: IDC Anal. Future, vol. 2007, pp. 1–16, Dec. 2012.
  15. S. Taylor, “The next generation of the Internet revolutionizing the way we work, live, play, and learn,” CISCO, San Francisco, CA, USA, CISCO Point of View, 2013.
  16. R. Khan, S. U. Khan, R. Zaheer, and S. Khan, “Future Internet: The Internet of Things architecture, possible applications and key challenges,” in Proc. 10th Int. Conf. FIT, 2012, pp. 257–260.
  17. M. A. Chaqfeh and N. Mohamed, “Challenges in middleware solutions for the Internet of Things,” in Proc. Int. Conf. CTS, 2012, pp. 21–26.
  18. L. Atzori, A. Iera and G. Morabito, “The Internet of Things: A Survey”, Computer Networks, 54(15): 2787-2805, 2010.
  19. H. Will, K. Schleiser, and J. Schiller. A Real-Time Kernel for Wireless Sensor Networks Employed in Rescue Scenarios. In Workshop on Practical Issues in Building Sensor Network Applications (SenseApp), 2009.
  20. TinyOS [Online]. Available:
  21. TinyDB [Online]. Available:
  22. TWINE [Online]. Available:
  23. NinjavBlocks [Online]. Available:
  24. Smart Things [Online]. Available:
  25. P.J. Marrón, A. Lachenmann, and D. Minder, "TinyCubus: A Flexible and Adaptive Framework for Sensor Networks," in 2nd European Workshop on Wireless Sensor Networks, 2005, pp. 278-289.
  26. C. Perera, P. P. Jayaraman, A. Zaslavsky, P. Christen and D. Georgakopoulos, "MOSDEN: An Internet of Things middleware for resource constrained mobile devices", Proc. 47th Hawaii Int. Conf. Syst. Sci. (HICSS), pp. 1053-1062, 2014.
  27. Contiki [Online]. Available:
  28. RIOT [Online]. Available:
  29. FreeRTOS [Online]. Available:
  30. LiteOS [Online]. Available:
  31. OpenTag[Online].Available:
  32. Mohammad Abdur Razzaque, Marija Milojevic-Jevric, Andrei Palade and Siobhan Clarke, "Middleware for Internet of Things: A Survey", IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 70-95 .
  33. OpenFlow [Online]. Available:
  34. Wireless Sensor Networks [Online]. Available:
  35. L. Mainetti, L. Patrono, and A. Vilei, "Evolution of wireless sensor networks towards the Internet of Things: A survey". Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Software, Telecommunications and Computer Networks (SoftCOM 2011). Split, Croatia, 2011, pp. 1-6.
  36. Fielding, Roy Thomas (2000). Chapter 5: Representational State Transfer (REST).


Internet of Things (IoT); framework; middleware; operating system (OS); software defined networking (SDN); wireless sensor networks (WSNs); MANET.