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DCT versus DWT Chaotic based Color Image Encryption

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International Journal of Computer Applications
Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA
Year of Publication: 2019
Authors:
M. A. Mohamed, M. I. Fath Allah, L. W. Elbon
10.5120/ijca2019919706

M A Mohamed, Fath M I Allah and L W Elbon. DCT versus DWT Chaotic based Color Image Encryption. International Journal of Computer Applications 177(24):24-41, December 2019. BibTeX

@article{10.5120/ijca2019919706,
	author = {M. A. Mohamed and M. I. Fath Allah and L. W. Elbon},
	title = {DCT versus DWT Chaotic based Color Image Encryption},
	journal = {International Journal of Computer Applications},
	issue_date = {December 2019},
	volume = {177},
	number = {24},
	month = {Dec},
	year = {2019},
	issn = {0975-8887},
	pages = {24-41},
	numpages = {18},
	url = {http://www.ijcaonline.org/archives/volume177/number24/31046-2019919706},
	doi = {10.5120/ijca2019919706},
	publisher = {Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA},
	address = {New York, USA}
}

Abstract

Over the years, large amount of transferred information has been attacked by hackers; so it has been considerable to make all effort for securing data and encrypting the information. Color images represent a very vital and important type of multimedia; so many encryption techniques have been proposed to protect the color image against different types of attacks. In this paper two proposed techniques will be introduced which have had high robustness against complex composite form of attacks. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) has been applied for image transformation in one method and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) has been applied in the other one. Six various chaotic maps have been used with different parameters to introduce the needed encryption keys for the proposed approaches. After many extensive comparisons with other traditional techniques it has been found that the proposed algorithms have given better performance against both friendly and hard forms of complex composite attacks.

References

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  9. BENRHOUMA, O., MANNAI, O. & HERMASSI, H. Digital images watermarking and partial encryption based on DWT transformation and chaotic maps. Systems, Signals & Devices (SSD), 2015 12th International Multi-Conference on, 2015. IEEE, 1-6.
  10. MOYSIS, L. & AZAR, A. T. 2017. New discrete time 2d chaotic maps. International Journal of System Dynamics Applications (IJSDA), 6, 77-104
  11. LOAN, Nazir A., et al. Secure and Robust Digital Image Watermarking Using Coefficient Differencing and Chaotic Encryption. IEEE Access, 2018, 6: 19876-19897.‏
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  14. MOHAMED, M. A.; SAMRAH, Ahmed Shaaban; FATH ALLAH, Mohamed Ismail. DWT versus WP Based Optical Color Image Encryption Robust to Composite Attacks. Advances in OptoElectronics, 2017, 2017.‏
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  19. Table 2. performance metrics in case DCT technique against Friendly Gaussian attack for image (1)
  20. Metrics
  21. Chirikov
  22. Chirikovtan
  23. Henon
  24. Ikeda
  25. Logistic
  26. Quadratic
  27. Refrence no.(14) without using filter
  28. Refrence no.(14) with using median filter
  29. 
  30. Elapsed time
  31. 0.1993
  32. 0.2412
  33. 0.2029
  34. 0.1945
  35. 0.2784
  36. 0.2219
  37. 0.7704
  38. 0.7911
  39. 
  40. MSE
  41. 4.9858e+03
  42. 5.9206e+03
  43. 6.2695e+03
  44. 6.5290e+03
  45. 6.5796e+03
  46. 6.5796e+03
  47. 15819
  48. 15388
  49. 
  50. PSNR
  51. 11.1535
  52. 10.4071
  53. 10.1585
  54. 10.1585
  55. 9.9032
  56. 9.9488
  57. 6.1391
  58. 6.2590
  59. 
  60. R
  61. 0.1447
  62. 0.0713
  63. 0.1392
  64. 0.1382
  65. 0.0482
  66. 0.1196
  67. 0.1545
  68. 0.1846
  69. 
  70. NPCR
  71. 5.0863e-04
  72. 5.0863e-04
  73. 5.0863e-04
  74. 5.0863e-04
  75. 5.0863e-04
  76. 5.0863e-04
  77. 0.00074
  78. 0.00074
  79. 
  80. UACI
  81. 16.1221
  82. 20.957
  83. 23.5832
  84. 24.6248
  85. 19.8354
  86. 24.1143
  87. 28.221
  88. 29.1083
  89. 
  90. Entropy of original image
  91. 7.0237
  92. 7.0237
  93. 7.0237
  94. 7.0237
  95. 7.0237
  96. 7.0237
  97. 7.2638
  98. 7.2331
  99. 
  100. Table 3. performance metrics in case DWT technique against Friendly Gaussian attack for image (1)
  101. Metrics
  102. Chirikov
  103. Chirikovtan
  104. Henon
  105. Ikeda
  106. Logistic
  107. Quadratic
  108. Refrence no.(14) without using filter
  109. Refrence no.(14) with using median filter
  110. 
  111. Elapsed time
  112. 0.8500
  113. 0.3440
  114. 0.3309
  115. 0.3470
  116. 0.2938
  117. 0.3101
  118. 0.6259
  119. 0.6296
  120. 
  121. MSE
  122. 5.5680e+03
  123. 6.4874e+03
  124. 6.2872e+03
  125. 6.5382e+03
  126. 7.8959e+03
  127. 6.5768+03
  128. 10495
  129. 10066
  130. 
  131. PSNR
  132. 10.6738
  133. 10.0101
  134. 10.1462
  135. 9.9762
  136. 9.1568
  137. 9.9507
  138. 7.9209
  139. 8.1021
  140. 
  141. R
  142. 0.0564
  143. -0.0407
  144. 0.0925
  145. 0.1119
  146. 0.0990
  147. 0.1079
  148. 0.4341
  149. 0.4601
  150. 
  151. NPCR
  152. 5.0863e-04
  153. 5.0863e-04
  154. 5.0863e-04
  155. 5.0863e-04
  156. 5.0863e-04
  157. 5.0863e-04
  158. 0.00074
  159. 0.00074
  160. 
  161. UACI
  162. 17.4673
  163. 21.8000
  164. 23.4128
  165. 24.5642
  166. 16.0536
  167. 24.0315
  168. 5.6079
  169. 5.3108
  170. 
  171. Entropy of original image
  172. 7.0237
  173. 7.0237
  174. 7.0237
  175. 7.0237
  176. 7.0237
  177. 7.0237
  178. 5.9133
  179. 5.6448
  180. 
  181. Table 4. performance metrics in case DCT technique against Friendly Salt & pepper attack for image (1)
  182. Metrics
  183. Chirikov
  184. Chirikovtan
  185. Henon
  186. Ikeda
  187. Logistic
  188. Quadratic
  189. Refrence no.(14) without using filter
  190. Refrence no.(14) with using median filter
  191. 
  192. Elapsed time
  193. 0.2832
  194. 0.2392
  195. 0.2735
  196. 0.2356
  197. 0.2793
  198. 0.2328
  199. 0.7704
  200. 0.7911
  201. 
  202. MSE
  203. 5.0258e+03
  204. 5.9488e+03
  205. 6.2634e+03
  206. 6.5267e+03
  207. 7.3485e+03
  208. 6.5773e+03
  209. 15819
  210. 15388
  211. 
  212. PSNR
  213. 11.1188
  214. 10.3865
  215. 10.1627
  216. 9.9839
  217. 9.4688
  218. 9.9503
  219. 6.1391
  220. 6.2590
  221. 
  222. R
  223. 0.1489
  224. 0.0730
  225. 0.1403
  226. 0.1383
  227. 0.0585
  228. 0.1196
  229. 0.1545
  230. 0.1846
  231. 
  232. NPCR
  233. 5.0863e-04
  234. 5.0863e-04
  235. 5.0863e-04
  236. 5.0863e-04
  237. 5.0863e-04
  238. 5.0863e-04
  239. 0.00074
  240. 0.00074
  241. 
  242. UACI
  243. 16.3549
  244. 21.0561
  245. 23.5637
  246. 24.6179
  247. 20.1300
  248. 24.1069
  249. 28.221
  250. 29.1083
  251. 
  252. Entropy of original image
  253. 7.0237
  254. 7.0237
  255. 7.0237
  256. 7.0237
  257. 7.0237
  258. 7.0237
  259. 7.2638
  260. 7.2331
  261. 
  262. Table 5. performance metrics in case DWT technique against Friendly Salt & pepper attack for image (1)
  263. Metrics
  264. Chirikov
  265. Chirikovtan
  266. Henon
  267. Ikeda
  268. Logistic
  269. Quadratic
  270. Refrence no.(14) without using filter
  271. Refrence no.(14) with using median filter
  272. 
  273. Elapsed time
  274. 0.3285
  275. 0.3110
  276. 0.3029
  277. 0.3052
  278. 0.2761
  279. 0.3189
  280. 0.6259
  281. 0.6296
  282. 
  283. MSE
  284. 5.17134e+03
  285. 6.5918e+03
  286. 6.270e+03
  287. 6.5332e+03
  288. 7.8802e+03
  289. 6.5726e+03
  290. 10495
  291. 10066
  292. 
  293. PSNR
  294. 10.5618
  295. 9.9408
  296. 10.1519
  297. 9.9795
  298. 9.1654
  299. 9.9534
  300. 7.9209
  301. 8.1021
  302. 
  303. R
  304. 0.0501
  305. -0.0475
  306. 0.0918
  307. 0.1121
  308. 0.1006
  309. 0.1081
  310. 0.4341
  311. 0.4601
  312. 
  313. NPCR
  314. 5.0863e-04
  315. 5.0863e-04
  316. 5.0863e-04
  317. 5.0863e-04
  318. 5.0863e-04
  319. 5.0863e-04
  320. 0.00074
  321. 0.00074
  322. 
  323. UACI
  324. 17.8973
  325. 22.1792
  326. 23.3656
  327. 24.5492
  328. 16.0898
  329. 24.0194
  330. 5.6079
  331. 5.3108
  332. 
  333. Entropy of original image
  334. 7.0237
  335. 7.0237
  336. 7.0237
  337. 7.0237
  338. 7.0237
  339. 7.0237
  340. 5.9133
  341. 5.6448
  342. 
  343. Table 6. performance metrics in case DCT technique against Friendly Speckle attack for image (1)
  344. Metrics
  345. Chirikov
  346. Chirikovtan
  347. Henon
  348. Ikeda
  349. Logistic
  350. Quadratic
  351. Refrence no.(14) without using filter
  352. Refrence no.(14) with using median filter
  353. 
  354. Elapsed time
  355. 0.2657
  356. 0.6580
  357. 0.2695
  358. 0.2580
  359. 0.2429
  360. 0.2412
  361. 0.7704
  362. 0.7911
  363. 
  364. MSE
  365. 5.0954e+03
  366. 6.0033e+03
  367. 6.3019e+03
  368. 6.5483e+03
  369. 7.3426e+03
  370. 6.5925e+03
  371. 15819
  372. 15388
  373. 
  374. PSNR
  375. 11.0590
  376. 10.3469
  377. 10.1361
  378. 9.9695
  379. 9.4723
  380. 9.9403
  381. 6.1391
  382. 6.2590
  383. 
  384. R
  385. 0.1441
  386. 0.0743
  387. 0.1387
  388. 0.1363
  389. 0.0596
  390. 0.1192
  391. 0.1545
  392. 0.1846
  393. 
  394. NPCR
  395. 5.0863e-04
  396. 5.0863e-04
  397. 5.0863e-04
  398. 5.0863e-04
  399. 5.0863e-04
  400. 5.0863e-04
  401. 0.00074
  402. 0.00074
  403. 
  404. UACI
  405. 16.9110
  406. 21.4198
  407. 23.7124
  408. 24.6792
  409. 20.3251
  410. 24.1535
  411. 28.221
  412. 29.1083
  413. 
  414. Entropy of original image
  415. 7.0237
  416. 7.0237
  417. 7.0237
  418. 7.0237
  419. 7.0237
  420. 7.0237
  421. 7.2638
  422. 7.2331
  423. 
  424. Table 7 performance metrics in case DWT technique against Friendly Speckle attack for image (1)
  425. Metrics
  426. Chirikov
  427. Chirikovtan
  428. Henon
  429. Ikeda
  430. Logistic
  431. Quadratic
  432. Refrence no.(14) without using filter
  433. Refrence no.(14) with using median filter
  434. 
  435. Elapsed time
  436. 0.3574
  437. 0.2701
  438. 0.3522
  439. 0.3120
  440. 0.2930
  441. 0.3049
  442. 0.6259
  443. 0.6296
  444. 
  445. MSE
  446. 5.747e+043
  447. 6.5952e+03
  448. 6.3071e+03
  449. 6.5553e+03
  450. 7.8616e+03
  451. 6.5878e+03
  452. 10495
  453. 10066
  454. 
  455. PSNR
  456. 10.5411
  457. 9.9385
  458. 10.1325
  459. 9.9649
  460. 9.1757
  461. 9.9437
  462. 7.9209
  463. 8.1021
  464. 
  465. R
  466. 0.0429
  467. -0.0508
  468. 0.0940
  469. 0.1120
  470. 0.1007
  471. 0.1079
  472. 0.4341
  473. 0.4601
  474. 
  475. NPCR
  476. 5.0863e-04
  477. 5.0863e-04
  478. 5.0863e-04
  479. 5.0863e-04
  480. 5.0863e-04
  481. 5.0863e-04
  482. 0.00074
  483. 0.00074
  484. 
  485. UACI
  486. 18.2553
  487. 22.3527
  488. 23.5403
  489. 24.6183
  490. 16.2727
  491. 24.0672
  492. 5.6079
  493. 5.3108
  494. 
  495. Entropy of original image
  496. 7.0237
  497. 7.0237
  498. 7.0237
  499. 7.0237
  500. 7.0237
  501. 7.0237
  502. 5.9133
  503. 5.6448
  504. 
  505. Table 8. performance metrics in case DCT technique against Hard Gaussian attack for image (1)
  506. Metrics
  507. Chirikov
  508. Chirikovtan
  509. Henon
  510. Ikeda
  511. Logistic
  512. Quadratic
  513. Refrence no.(14) without using filter
  514. Refrence no.(14) with using median filter
  515. 
  516. Elapsed time
  517. 0.3141
  518. 0.2958
  519. 0.3173
  520. 0.3342
  521. 0.3111
  522. 0.3327
  523. 0.7704
  524. 0.7911
  525. 
  526. MSE
  527. 4.1465e+03
  528. 4.1570e+03
  529. 4.1436e+03
  530. 4.1516e+03
  531. 4.1456e+03
  532. 4.1510e+03
  533. 15819
  534. 15388
  535. 
  536. PSNR
  537. 11.9540
  538. 11.9430
  539. 11.9571
  540. 11.9486
  541. 11.9550
  542. 11.9493
  543. 6.1391
  544. 6.2590
  545. 
  546. R
  547. 0.3347
  548. 0.3329
  549. 0.3349
  550. 0.3339
  551. 0.3341
  552. 0.3340
  553. 0.1545
  554. 0.1846
  555. 
  556. NPCR
  557. 5.0863e-04
  558. 5.0863e-04
  559. 5.0863e-04
  560. 5.0863e-04
  561. 5.0863e-04
  562. 5.0863e-04
  563. 0.00074
  564. 0.00074
  565. 
  566. UACI
  567. 10.1729
  568. 10.1823
  569. 10.1892
  570. 10.1798
  571. 10.1701
  572. 10.1589
  573. 28.221
  574. 29.1083
  575. 
  576. Entropy of original image
  577. 6.9219
  578. 6.9219
  579. 6.9219
  580. 6.9219
  581. 6.9219
  582. 6.9219
  583. 7.2638
  584. 7.2331
  585. 
  586. Table 9. performance metrics in case DWT technique against Hard Gaussian attack for image (1)
  587. Metrics
  588. Chirikov
  589. Chirikovtan
  590. Henon
  591. Ikeda
  592. Logistic
  593. Quadratic
  594. Refrence no.(14) without using filter
  595. Refrence no.(14) with using median filter
  596. 
  597. Elapsed time
  598. 0.3564
  599. 0.3501
  600. 0.3747
  601. 0.3387
  602. 0.3346
  603. 0.3273
  604. 0.6259
  605. 0.6296
  606. 
  607. MSE
  608. 4.1541e+03
  609. 4.1467e+03
  610. 4.1489e+03
  611. 4.1466e+03
  612. 4.1495e+03
  613. 4.1436e+03
  614. 10495
  615. 10066
  616. 
  617. PSNR
  618. 11.9460
  619. 11.9537
  620. 11.9515
  621. 11.9538
  622. 11.9509
  623. 11.9571
  624. 7.9209
  625. 8.1021
  626. 
  627. R
  628. 0.3326
  629. 0.3347
  630. 0.3344
  631. 0.3346
  632. 0.3341
  633. 0.3347
  634. 0.4341
  635. 0.4601
  636. 
  637. NPCR
  638. 5.0863e-04
  639. 5.0863e-04
  640. 5.0863e-04
  641. 5.0863e-04
  642. 5.0863e-04
  643. 5.0863e-04
  644. 0.00074
  645. 0.00074
  646. 
  647. UACI
  648. 10.1606
  649. 10.1613
  650. 10.1527
  651. 10.1650
  652. 10.1648
  653. 10.1748
  654. 5.6079
  655. 5.3108
  656. 
  657. Entropy of original image
  658. 6.9219
  659. 6.9219
  660. 6.9219
  661. 6.9219
  662. 6.9219
  663. 6.9219
  664. 5.9133
  665. 5.6448
  666. 
  667. Table 10. performance metrics in case DCT technique against Hard salt & pepper attack for image (1)
  668. Metrics
  669. Chirikov
  670. Chirikovtan
  671. Henon
  672. Ikeda
  673. Logistic
  674. Quadratic
  675. Refrence no.(14) without using filter
  676. Refrence no.(14) with using median filter
  677. 
  678. Elapsed time
  679. 0.2994
  680. 0.3069
  681. 0.4033
  682. 0.3149
  683. 0.3067
  684. 0.2967
  685. 0.7704
  686. 0.7911
  687. 
  688. MSE
  689. 4.2054e+03
  690. 4.2055e+03
  691. 4.2062e+03
  692. 4.2050e+03
  693. 4.2064e+03
  694. 4.2054e+03
  695. 15819
  696. 15388
  697. 
  698. PSNR
  699. 11.8927
  700. 11.8926
  701. 11.8919
  702. 11.8931
  703. 11.8917
  704. 11.8927
  705. 6.1391
  706. 6.2590
  707. 
  708. R
  709. 0.3358
  710. 0.3357
  711. 0.3355
  712. 0.3357
  713. 0.3356
  714. 0.3358
  715. 0.1545
  716. 0.1846
  717. 
  718. NPCR
  719. 5.0863e-04
  720. 5.0863e-04
  721. 5.0863e-04
  722. 5.0863e-04
  723. 5.0863e-04
  724. 5.0863e-04
  725. 0.00074
  726. 0.00074
  727. 
  728. UACI
  729. 10.5089
  730. 10.5104
  731. 10.5078
  732. 10.5119
  733. 10.5105
  734. 10.5052
  735. 28.221
  736. 29.1083
  737. 
  738. Entropy of original image
  739. 6.9219
  740. 6.9219
  741. 6.9219
  742. 6.9219
  743. 6.9219
  744. 6.9219
  745. 7.2638
  746. 7.2331
  747. 
  748. Table 11. performance metrics in case DWT technique against Hard salt & pepper attack for image (1)
  749. Metrics
  750. Chirikov
  751. Chirikovtan
  752. Henon
  753. Ikeda
  754. Logistic
  755. Quadratic
  756. Refrence no.(14) without using filter
  757. Refrence no.(14) with using median filter
  758. 
  759. Elapsed time
  760. 0.5476
  761. 0.3124
  762. 0.3630
  763. 0.3653
  764. 0.3178
  765. 0.3148
  766. 0.6259
  767. 0.7911
  768. 
  769. MSE
  770. 4.2050e+03
  771. 4.2072e+03
  772. 4.2069e+03
  773. 4.2048e+03
  774. 4.2063e+03
  775. 4.2068e+03
  776. 10495
  777. 15388
  778. 
  779. PSNR
  780. 11.8932
  781. 11.8908
  782. 11.8912
  783. 11.8934
  784. 11.8918
  785. 11.8913
  786. 7.9209
  787. 6.2590
  788. 
  789. R
  790. 0.3357
  791. 0.3354
  792. 0.3355
  793. 0.3358
  794. 0.3356
  795. 0.3355
  796. 0.4341
  797. 0.1846
  798. 
  799. NPCR
  800. 5.0863e-04
  801. 5.0863e-04
  802. 5.0863e-04
  803. 5.0863e-04
  804. 5.0863e-04
  805. 5.0863e-04
  806. 0.00074
  807. 0.00074
  808. 
  809. UACI
  810. 10.5114
  811. 10.5116
  812. 10.5072
  813. 10.5121
  814. 10.5079
  815. 10.5099
  816. 5.6079
  817. 29.1083
  818. 
  819. Entropy of original image
  820. 6.9219
  821. 6.9219
  822. 6.9219
  823. 6.9219
  824. 6.9219
  825. 6.9219
  826. 5.9133
  827. 7.2331
  828. 
  829. Table 12. performance metrics in case DCT technique against Hard Speckle attack for image (1)
  830. Metrics
  831. Chirikov
  832. Chirikovtan
  833. Henon
  834. Ikeda
  835. Logistic
  836. Quadratic
  837. Refrence no.(14) without using filter
  838. Refrence no.(14) with using median filter
  839. 
  840. Elapsed time
  841. 0.2662
  842. 0.2762
  843. 0.2803
  844. 0.2823
  845. 0.2960
  846. 0.2812
  847. 0.7704
  848. 0.7911
  849. 
  850. MSE
  851. 4.2233e+03
  852. 4.2152e+03
  853. 4.2121e+03
  854. 4.2141e+03
  855. 4.2171e+03
  856. 4.2070e+03
  857. 15819
  858. 15388
  859. 
  860. PSNR
  861. 11.8743
  862. 11.8826
  863. 11.8858
  864. 11.8837
  865. 11.8807
  866. 11.8911
  867. 6.1391
  868. 6.2590
  869. 
  870. R
  871. 0.3326
  872. 0.338
  873. 0.3334
  874. 0.3349
  875. 0.3337
  876. 0.3351
  877. 0.1545
  878. 0.1846
  879. 
  880. NPCR
  881. 5.0863e-04
  882. 5.0863e-04
  883. 5.0863e-04
  884. 5.0863e-04
  885. 5.0863e-04
  886. 5.0863e-04
  887. 0.00074
  888. 0.00074
  889. 
  890. UACI
  891. 10.6046
  892. 10.6249
  893. 10.6235
  894. 10.6057
  895. 10.6348
  896. 10.6167
  897. 28.221
  898. 29.1083
  899. 
  900. Entropy of original image
  901. 6.9219
  902. 6.9219
  903. 6.9219
  904. 6.9219
  905. 6.9219
  906. 6.9219
  907. 7.2638
  908. 7.2331
  909. 
  910. Table 13. performance metrics in case DWT technique against Hard Speckle attack for image (1)
  911. Metrics
  912. Chirikov
  913. Chirikovtan
  914. Henon
  915. Ikeda
  916. Logistic
  917. Quadratic
  918. Refrence no.(14) without using filter
  919. Refrence no.(14) with using median filter
  920. 
  921. Elapsed time
  922. 0.2662
  923. 0.2762
  924. 0.2803
  925. 0.2823
  926. 0.2960
  927. 0.2812
  928. 0.6259
  929. 0.7911
  930. 
  931. MSE
  932. 4.2233e+03
  933. 4.2152e+03
  934. 4.2121e+03
  935. 4.2141e+03
  936. 4.2171e+03
  937. 4.2070e+03
  938. 10495
  939. 15388
  940. 
  941. PSNR
  942. 11.8743
  943. 11.8826
  944. 11.8858
  945. 11.8837
  946. 11.8807
  947. 11.8911
  948. 7.9209
  949. 6.2590
  950. 
  951. R
  952. 0.3326
  953. 0.338
  954. 0.3334
  955. 0.3349
  956. 0.3337
  957. 0.3351
  958. 0.4341
  959. 0.1846
  960. 
  961. NPCR
  962. 5.0863e-04
  963. 5.0863e-04
  964. 5.0863e-04
  965. 5.0863e-04
  966. 5.0863e-04
  967. 5.0863e-04
  968. 0.00074
  969. 0.00074
  970. 
  971. UACI
  972. 10.6046
  973. 10.6249
  974. 10.6235
  975. 10.6057
  976. 10.6348
  977. 10.6167
  978. 5.6079
  979. 29.1083
  980. 
  981. Entropy of original image
  982. 6.9219
  983. 6.9219
  984. 6.9219
  985. 6.9219
  986. 6.9219
  987. 6.9219
  988. 5.9133
  989. 7.2331
  990. 
  991. 

Keywords

Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), Inverse Discrete Cosine Transform (IDCT), Inverse Discrete Wavelet Transform (IDWT), Data Encryption Standard(DES), Data Encryption Standard(TRIPLE DES), Advanced Encryption Standard(AES).