CFP last date
20 May 2024
Reseach Article

A Fast, Blind, Transparent, and Robust Image Watermarking Algorithm with Extended Torus Automorphism Permutation

by Hanan Elazhary
International Journal of Computer Applications
Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA
Volume 32 - Number 4
Year of Publication: 2011
Authors: Hanan Elazhary

Hanan Elazhary . A Fast, Blind, Transparent, and Robust Image Watermarking Algorithm with Extended Torus Automorphism Permutation. International Journal of Computer Applications. 32, 4 ( October 2011), 34-41. DOI=10.5120/3895-5458

@article{ 10.5120/3895-5458,
author = { Hanan Elazhary },
title = { A Fast, Blind, Transparent, and Robust Image Watermarking Algorithm with Extended Torus Automorphism Permutation },
journal = { International Journal of Computer Applications },
issue_date = { October 2011 },
volume = { 32 },
number = { 4 },
month = { October },
year = { 2011 },
issn = { 0975-8887 },
pages = { 34-41 },
numpages = {9},
url = { },
doi = { 10.5120/3895-5458 },
publisher = {Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA},
address = {New York, USA}
%0 Journal Article
%1 2024-02-06T20:18:19.654513+05:30
%A Hanan Elazhary
%T A Fast, Blind, Transparent, and Robust Image Watermarking Algorithm with Extended Torus Automorphism Permutation
%J International Journal of Computer Applications
%@ 0975-8887
%V 32
%N 4
%P 34-41
%D 2011
%I Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA

In this paper, we present a novel algorithm for watermarking a grayscale digital image with a binary watermark in the DCT domain. The algorithm is transparent since the watermark is not really embedded in the host image. This results in zero distortion of the watermarked host image. The embedded watermark is robust to most common unintentional attacks by intelligently utilizing the signs of the DC components of the DCT-transformed host image blocks. The algorithm is blind since only the secret keys are required for watermark extraction. These secret keys are in the form of two shares. One of the shares is registered to the Certified Authority (CA) for additional security and protection against intentional attacks. The size of each share is much smaller than that of other techniques in the literature and the shares are generated faster. The algorithm is practical due to its very fast speed of both watermark embedding and extraction. The paper also proposes an extended version of Torus Automorphism (TA) permutation for scrambling the watermark before embedding and to reassemble it after extraction for additional security against intentional attacks.

  1. Chang, C. and Chuang, J. 2002. An Image Intellectual Property Protection Scheme for Gray-Level Images Using Visual Secret Sharing Strategy. Pattern Recognition Letters, 23 (2002), 931–941.
  2. Hu, M., Lou, D., and Chang, M. 2007. Dual-Wrapped Digital Watermarking Scheme for Image Copyright Protection. Computers & Security, 26 (2007), 319-330.
  3. Hussein, J. 2010. Spatial Domain Watermarking Scheme for Colored Images Based on Log-Average Luminance. Journal of Computing, 2(1) (2010).
  4. Saryazdi, S. and Demehri, M. 2005. A Blind DCT Domain Digital Watermarking. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Sciences of Electronic, Technologies of Information and Telecommunications, (2005).
  5. Lin, S., Shie, S., and Guo, J. 2010. Improving the Robustness of DCT-Based Image Watermarking against JPEG Compression. Computer Standards & Interfaces, 32 (2010), 54–60.
  6. Patra, J., Phua, J., and Bornand, C. 2010. A Novel DCT Domain CRT-Based Watermarking Scheme for Image Authentication Surviving JPEG Compression. Digital Signal Processing, (2010).
  7. Yongqiang, C., Yanqing, Z., and Lihua, P. 2009. A DWT Domain Image Watermarking Scheme Using Genetic Algorithm and Synergetic Neural Network. In Proceedings of the 2009 International Symposium on Information Processing (ISIP’09), (2009), 298-301.
  8. Temi, C., Choomchuay, S., and Lasakul, A. 2005. A Robust Image Watermarking Using Multiresolution Analysis of Wavelet. In proceedings of ISCIT2005, (2005).
  9. Ganic, E. and Eskicioglu, A. 2004. Robust DWT-SVD Domain Image Watermarking: Embedding Data in All Frequencies. In Proceedings of the 2004 workshop on Multimedia and security, (2004).
  10. Bedi, S., Kumar, A., and Kapoor, P. 2009. Robust Secure SVD Based DCT-DWT Oriented Watermarking Technique for Image Authentication. In Proceedings of the International Conference on IT to Celebrate S. Charmonman's 72nd Birthday, (2009).
  11. Ganesan, S. 2006. Real-Time Digital Image Watermarking. TI Developer Conference, (2006).
  12. Coltuc, D. and Chassery, J. 2007. Very Fast Watermarking by Reversible Contrast Mapping. IEEE Signal Processing Letters, 14(4) (2007), 255-258.
  13. Naderahmadian, Y. and Hosseini-Khayat, S. 2010. Fast Watermarking Based on QR Decomposition in Wavelet Domain. In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing, (2010), 127-130.
  14. Voyatzis, G. and Pitas, I. 1996. Applications of Toral Automorphisms in Image Watermarking. In Proceedings of the Image Processing International Conference, (1996).
  15. Chang, C., Hsiao, J., and Chiang, C. 2002. An Image Copyright Protection Scheme Based on Torus Automorphism. In Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Cyber Worlds, (2002), 217–224.
  16. Engedy, M., Munaga, V., and Saxena, A. 2006. A Robust Wavelet Based Digital Watermarking Scheme Using Chaotic Mixing. In Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Digital Information Management, (2006), 36–40.
  17. Naor, N., and Shamir, A. 1994. Visual Cryptography, Advances in Cryptography. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, (1994), 1–12.
  18. Elazhary, H. and Morkos, S. 2010. Blind Robust Transparent DCT-Based Digital Image Watermarking for Copyright Protection. International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, 8(7) (2010).
Index Terms

Computer Science
Information Sciences


Digital image watermarking Torus Automorphism permutation