CFP last date
20 March 2024
Call for Paper
April Edition
IJCA solicits high quality original research papers for the upcoming April edition of the journal. The last date of research paper submission is 20 March 2024

Submit your paper
Know more
Reseach Article

Intelligent Heart Rate Controller For Cardiac Pacemaker

by Jyoti Yadav, Asha Rani, Girisha Garg
International Journal of Computer Applications
Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA
Volume 36 - Number 7
Year of Publication: 2011
Authors: Jyoti Yadav, Asha Rani, Girisha Garg

Jyoti Yadav, Asha Rani, Girisha Garg . Intelligent Heart Rate Controller For Cardiac Pacemaker. International Journal of Computer Applications. 36, 7 ( December 2011), 22-29. DOI=10.5120/4503-6361

@article{ 10.5120/4503-6361,
author = { Jyoti Yadav, Asha Rani, Girisha Garg },
title = { Intelligent Heart Rate Controller For Cardiac Pacemaker },
journal = { International Journal of Computer Applications },
issue_date = { December 2011 },
volume = { 36 },
number = { 7 },
month = { December },
year = { 2011 },
issn = { 0975-8887 },
pages = { 22-29 },
numpages = {9},
url = { },
doi = { 10.5120/4503-6361 },
publisher = {Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA},
address = {New York, USA}
%0 Journal Article
%1 2024-02-06T20:22:32.656062+05:30
%A Jyoti Yadav
%A Asha Rani
%A Girisha Garg
%T Intelligent Heart Rate Controller For Cardiac Pacemaker
%J International Journal of Computer Applications
%@ 0975-8887
%V 36
%N 7
%P 22-29
%D 2011
%I Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA

In the recent years improvement in the patient’s quality-of-life has become a focal point in the development of new and optimized techniques for electro stimulation of the heart. In an effort to make such improvements the present work describes the design of a control system for regulating the Heart Rate (HR) for pacemaker in an efficient way. The overall control system to be developed, in this work is considered to be composed of cardiovascular system duly energized by an intelligent pacemaker system as operated in a closed loop manner with unity negative gain in the feedback path. A conventional controller based on Proportional, Integral and Derivative (PID) is designed with the help of Zeigler-Nichols, Tyreus-Luyben and Relay tunings methods. In addition, HR controller is also designed using fuzzy controller to improve response parameters. By competitive study of results of fuzzy and PID controller it is found that the overall response of fuzzy logic based controller is better than the conventional PID controller.

  1. S. C. Biswas, A. Das, P. Guha, 2006, Mathematical Model of Cardiovascular System by Transfer function Method, Calcutta Medical Journal, 4, (July-Aug 2006), 15-17.
  2. Gideon F. Inbar , R. Heize klass, N. Hoekstein liess, K. Stangl and A. Wirtzfeld, 1988, Development of closed loop pacemaker controller regulating mixing venous oxygen saturation level, IEEE transactions on biomedical Engineering, 35, 9, (Sep.1988).
  3. T. Sugiura, N. Sugiura, T. Kazui and Y. Harada, 1991, A fuzzy approach to the rate control in an artificial cardiac pacemaker regulated by respiratory rate and temperature, Journal of medical engineering and technology, 15, 3, (1991), 107-110.
  4. J. W. Shin, J. H. Yoon and. R. Yoon, 2000, A Study on the Rate-Adaptive Pacemaker by Motion and Respiration using Neuro-Fuzzy, Annual EMBS International Conference, (July 2000).
  5. Adam Wojtasik, 2000, Fuzzy logic controller for rate-adaptive heart pacemaker, Journal of applied soft computing, 4, 3, (Aug.2000), 259-270.
  6. Alt E, Barold S. S, Stangl K. K (eds.), 1999, Rate adaptive cardiac pacing Berlin, Germany, Springer-Verlag, (1999), 83-169.
  7. Z. Jaworski, W. Kuzmicz, M. Sadowski, D. Sama, A. Walkanis, A. Wielgus and A. Wojtasik, 2000, VLSI implementations of fuzzy logic controllers for rate-adaptive pacemakers, Annual Intemational IEEE-EMBS Special Topic Conference on Microtechnologies in Medicine and Biology, Annual International Conference, (Oct 2000), 475 – 478.
  8. Dipali Bansal, Munna Khan, Ashok K. Salhan, 2009, A computer based wireless system for online acquisition, monitoring and digital processing of ECG waveforms, Computers in Biology and Medicine, 39, (2009), 361 – 367.
  9. Werner J., Hexamer M., Meine M., and Lemke, B., 1999, Restoration of cardio-circulatory regulation by rate-adaptive pacemaker systems: the bioengineering view of a clinical problem, IEEE transactions on biomedical engineering, 46(9) (Sep. 1999) 1057-1064.
  10. Neogi, B. ,Ghosh, R., Tarafdar U. and Das A., 2010, Simulation aspect of an artificial pacemaker, Int. J. Inf. Tech. Kno. Mgt. 3 (July-Dec. 2010) 723-727.
  11. Bennett, S. A. 1993. History of Control Engineering, Institute of Engineering and Technology, (1993) 28-69.
  12. Astrom K.J., and Hagglund T., 1995, PID controllers: Theory design and tuning, Instruments Society of America.
  13. Bequette B.W., 1991, Non linear control of chemical process :A rewiew, Ind. Eng .Chem. Res. 30 (1991) 1391-1413.
  14. Wilson D.I., 2005, Relay-based PID tuning. Automation and Control (Feb.–Mar. 2005) 10-11.
  15. Ross T. J. ,2005, Fuzzy logic with engineering Application, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
  16. Reznik L., 1997, Fuzzy Controllers, Victoria University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia.
  17. Fisher R.A., 1938, The Statistical Utilization of Multiple Measurements, Annals of Eugenics 8 (1938) 376–386.
  18. Janzen J., 1998, Tuning of Fuzzy controllers, Technical university of Denmark, Department of Automation (Sep. 1998)
  19. Passino K., Yurkovich S., 1998, Fuzzy Control, Addison Wesley Longman, Menlo Park, CA.
Index Terms

Computer Science
Information Sciences


Pacemaker Fuzzy Logic PID Heart Rate Controller Heart Rate Cardiovascular System