Call for Paper - November 2020 Edition
IJCA solicits original research papers for the November 2020 Edition. Last date of manuscript submission is October 20, 2020. Read More

Data Hiding by LSB Substitution using Gene Expression Programming

Print
PDF
International Journal of Computer Applications
© 2012 by IJCA Journal
Volume 45 - Number 14
Year of Publication: 2012
Authors:
Marghny H. Mohamed
Hussein I. Abul-kasim
10.5120/6848-9408

Marghny H Mohamed and Hussein I Abul-kasim. Article: Data Hiding by LSB Substitution using Gene Expression Programming. International Journal of Computer Applications 45(14):13-20, May 2012. Full text available. BibTeX

@article{key:article,
	author = {Marghny H. Mohamed and Hussein I. Abul-kasim},
	title = {Article: Data Hiding by LSB Substitution using Gene Expression Programming},
	journal = {International Journal of Computer Applications},
	year = {2012},
	volume = {45},
	number = {14},
	pages = {13-20},
	month = {May},
	note = {Full text available}
}

Abstract

Steganography is defined as the art and science of writing hidden in such a way that no one apart from the sender and the intended recipient even knows that there is a hidden message. One of the most important techniques of Steganography is the Least Significant Bit (LSB) which embeds the secret message in the host image. It is based on replacing the LSBs of the host-image with the secret message bits giving a stego-image. The proposed scheme consists mainly of two phases: In the first phase, we propose a hybrid data hiding scheme incorporates LSB technique with a key permutation method. While in the second phase, we proposed a new scheme for finding the optimal key-permutation by using gene expression programming (GEP). Where, GEP is a powerful evolutionary algorithm for data analysis and combines the advantages of both genetic algorithms (GA) and genetic programming (GP).

References

  • Fabien, Petitcolas, Anderson Ross, and Kuhn Markus. "Information Hiding - A Survey. " Proceedings of the IEEE, special issue on protection of multimedia content 87, no. 7 (July 1999): 1062-1078.
  • Simmons, Gustavus. "The Prisoner's problem and the subliminal channel in Advances in Cryptology. " Proc. crypto , 1983: 55-67.
  • Fridrich, Jessica, Miroslav Goljan, and Rui Du. "Detecting LSB Steganography in Color and Gray-Scale Images. " IEEE Multimedia Special Issue on Security, October- November 2001: 22–28.
  • Avc?bas, Ismail, Nasir Memon, and Bülent Sankur. "Steganalysis Using Image Quality Metrics. " IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING 12, no. 2 (FEBRUARY 2003): 221.
  • Westfeld, Andreas, and Andreas Pfitzmann. "Attacks on Steganographic Systems - Breaking the Steganographic Utilities EzStego, Jsteg, Steganos, and Stools - and Some Lessons Learned. " Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 1768, 2000: 61-75.
  • Johnson, Neil, and Sushil Jajodia. "Exploring Steganography: Seeing the Unseen. " IEEE Computer Mag. (George Mason Univ. ), February 1998.
  • Chan, Chi-Kwong, and Cheng. "Hiding data in images by simple LSB substitution. " Pattern Recognition 37, no. 3 (2004): 469–474.
  • Katzenbeisser, Stefan, and Fabien Petitcolas. "Information Hiding Techniques for Steganography and Digital Watermarking. " Artech house, Inc. , 2000.
  • Ferreira, Cândida. "Gene Expression Programming: A New Adaptive Algorithm for Solving Problems. " Complex Systems 13, no. 2 (2001): 87-129.
  • Ferreira, Cândida. Gene Expression Programming: Mathematical Modeling by an Artificial Intelligence. 2nd Edn. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2006.
  • Ferreira, Cândida. "Combinatorial Optimization by Gene Expression Programming: Inversion Revisited. " In J. M. Santos and A. Zapico, eds. , Proceedings of the Argentine Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, 2002: 160-174.
  • Ferreira, Cândida. "Function Finding and the Creation of Numerical Constants in Gene Expression Programming. " 7th Online World Conference on Soft Computing in Industrial Applications, 2002.
  • Pohlheim, Hartmut. http://www. geatbx. com/docu/algindex-02. html (accessed May 15, 2011).
  • Hsu, Ching-Sheng, and Shu-Fen Tu. "Finding optimal LSB substitution using Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm. " Second International Conference on Communication Software and Networks. IEEE, 2010.
  • Wang, Ran-Zan, Chi-Fang Lin, and Ja-Chen Lin. "Hiding data in images by optimal moderately significant-bit replacement. " IEEE Electron. Lett. 36, no. 25 (2000): 2069–2070.
  • Wang, Ran-Zan, Chi-Fang Lin, and Ja-Chen Lin. "Image hiding by optimal LSB substitution and genetic algorithm. " Pattern Recognition, no. 34 (2001): 671-683.
  • Li, Xiaoxia, and Jianjun Wang. "A steganographic method based upon JPEG and particle swarm optimization algorithm. " Information Sciences (Elsevier Inc. ), 2007: 3099–3109.
  • Chang, Chin-Chen, Ju-Yuan Hsiaob, and Chi-Shiang Chan. "Finding optimal least-significant-bit substitution in image hiding by dynamic programming strategy. " Pattern Recognition Society 36 (2003): 1583 – 1595.
  • Wu, Ming-Ni, Min-Hui Lin, and Chin-Chen Chang. "A LSB Substitution Oriented Image Hiding Strategy Using Genetic Algorithms. " AWCC 2004, LNCS 3309 (Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg), 2004: 219–229.
  • Forouzan, B. A. "Cryptography and Network Security. " Tata. McGraw Hill, 2007.
  • Chandrasekaran, Jeyamala, B. Subramanyan1, and Raman Selvanayagam. "A Chaos Based Approach for Improving Non Linearity in S Box Design of Symmetric Key Cryptosystems. " CCSIT 2011, Part II, CCIS 132 (Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg), 2011: 516–522.
  • Mohamed, Marghny, Fadwa Al-Afari, and Mohamed Bamatraf. "Data Hiding by LSB Substitution Using Genetic Optimal Key-Permutation. " International Arab Journal of e-Technology. 2, no. 1 (2011).
  • Ferreira, Cândida. "Gene Expression Programming in Problem Solving. " WSC6 tutorial, 2001.
  • Khodaei, Masoumeh, and Karim Faez. "Image Hiding by Using Genetic Algorithm and LSB Substitution. " ICISP 2010, LNCS 6134 (Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg), 2010: 404–411.