Call for Paper - April 2023 Edition
IJCA solicits original research papers for the April 2023 Edition. Last date of manuscript submission is March 20, 2023. Read More

Energy Efficient Routing Strategies for Clustered Wireless Sensor Networks: An Analytical Framework

International Journal of Computer Applications
© 2013 by IJCA Journal
Volume 74 - Number 8
Year of Publication: 2013
S. Jeba Anandh
E. Baburaj

Jeba S Anandh and E Baburaj. Article: Energy Efficient Routing Strategies for Clustered Wireless Sensor Networks: An Analytical Framework. International Journal of Computer Applications 74(8):19-27, July 2013. Full text available. BibTeX

	author = {S. Jeba Anandh and E. Baburaj},
	title = {Article: Energy Efficient Routing Strategies for Clustered Wireless Sensor Networks: An Analytical Framework},
	journal = {International Journal of Computer Applications},
	year = {2013},
	volume = {74},
	number = {8},
	pages = {19-27},
	month = {July},
	note = {Full text available}


The efficiency of a wireless sensor network depends on its life time. By conserving the battery power of individual sensor devices, considerable amount of total energy can be saved thereby increasing the total lifetime of the network. The operation phases of a wireless sensor network comprises of sensing the data, aggregating the data in an intermediate node, communicating and forwarding the aggregated data to the sink for further process. Among these, communication or routing process requires more energy than any other operation. Hence a better approach would be allowing only a selected number of nodes to communicate with the sink. This idea led to the construction of the sensor network as a number of clusters with a dynamically elected cluster-head node is only allowed to forward the data to the sink. Various routing techniques for clustered Wireless Sensor Networks has emerged yielding good result in improving the lifetime of the network. Here in this paper, a survey of these routing techniques are presented.


  • Li C. , Zhang H. X. , Hao B. B. , Li J. D. , "A survey on routing protocols for large-scale wireless sensor networks", Sensors 2011, vol. 11, pp. 3498–3526.
  • Al-Karaki, A. Kamal, "Routing Techniques in Wireless Sensor networks: A Survey," Security and Networks, 2004, Vol. 11, Issue 6, pp. 6-28.
  • Abbasi A. A. , Younis M. , "A survey on clustering algorithms for wireless sensor networks", Comput. Commun. 2007, vol. 30, pp. 2826–2841.
  • Deosarkar B. P. , Yada N. S. , Yadav R. P. , "Cluster Head Selection in Clustering Algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey", In Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking, Virgin Islands, USA, 3–7 August 2008; pp. 1–8.
  • Xue Q, Ganz A. , "Maximizing sensor network lifetime: analysis and design guides", In the Proceedings of the 2004 military communications conference, vol. 2, Monterey, CA, 2004. pp. 1144–1150.
  • R. V. Biradar, V. C. Patil, S. R. Sawant, R. R. Mudholkar, "Classifiacation and Comparison of Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks," Special Issue on Ubiquitous Computing Security Systems, 2009, Vol. 4, Issue 2, pp. 704-711.
  • Maimour M. , Zeghilet H. , Lepage F. , "Cluster-based Routing Protocols for Energy-Efficiency in Wireless Sensor Networks" Available online: http://cdn. intechweb. org/pdfs/12423. pdf (accessed on 14 December 2010).
  • G. Lukachan, M. Labrador, "SELAR: Scalable Energy-Efficient Location Aided Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks," In Proc. 29th Annual IEEE International Conference on Local Computer Networks, USA, Florida, 2004, pp. 694-695.
  • R. Ogier, F. Templin, M. Lewis, "Topology Dissemination Based on Reverse-Path Forwarding (TBRPF)," RFC Editor 2004.
  • Heinzelman W. R. , Chandrakasan A. , Balakrishnan H. , "Energy-Efficient Communication Protocol for Wireless Microsensor Networks", In Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Maui, HI, USA, 4–7 January 2000, pp. 10–19.
  • Tran-Quang V. , Miyoshi T. , "A Transmission Range Adjustment Algorithm to Avoid Energy Holes in Wireless Sensor Networks" In Proceedings of 8th Asia-Pacific Symposium on Information and Telecommunication Technologies, Kuching, Malaysia, 15–18 June 2010, pp. 15–18.
  • Younis O. , Fahmy S. , "HEED: A hybrid, energy-efficient, distributed clustering approach for ad-hoc sensor networks", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing. 2004, vol. 3, pp. 366–379.
  • S. C. Ergen, P. Varaiya, "On Multi-Hop Routing for Energy Efficiency," IEEE Commun. Lett. , 2005, Vol. 9, Issue 10, pp. 880-881.
  • Loscri V. , Morabito G. , Marano S. , "A Two-Level Hierarchy for Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy", In Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE Semiannual Vehicular Technology Conference, Dallas, TX, USA, 25–28 September 2005; pp. 1809–1813.
  • Liqi Shi, Fapojuwo A. , "TDMA Scheduling with Optimized Energy Efficiency and Minimum Delay in Clustered Wireless Sensor Networks", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 2010, Vol. 9, Iss. 7, pp. 927-940
  • S. Lindsey, C. Raghavendra, "PEGASIS: Power-Efficient GAthering in Sensor Information Systems," In Proc. IEEE Aerospace Conference, USA, Montana, 2002, Vol. 3, pp. 1125-1130.
  • Manjeshwar E. , Agrawal D. P. , "TEEN: A Routing Protocol for Enhanced Efficiency in Wireless Sensor Networks", In Proceedings of the 15th International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium (IPDPS), San Francisco, CA, USA, 23–27 April 2001; pp. 2009–2015.
  • Lotf J. J. , Hosseinzadeh M. , Alguliev R. M. , "Hierarchical Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey" In Proceedings of 2010 2nd International Conference on Computer Engineering and Technology, Chengdu, China, 16–18 April 2010; pp. 650–654.
  • Manjeshwar A. , Agrawal D. P. , "APTEEN: A Hybrid Protocol for Efficient Routing and Comprehensive Information Retrieval in Wireless Sensor Networks" In Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Parallel and Distributed Computing Issues in Wireless Networks and Mobile computing, Lauderdale, FL, USA, 15–19 April 2002; pp. 195–202.
  • Rong Ding, Bing Yang, Lei Yang, Jiawai Wang, "Soft Threshold based Cluster-Head Selection Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks", Third International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications, 2009, pp. 526-530.
  • S. Deng, J. Li, L. Shen, "Mobility based Clustering Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with Mobile Nodes", IET Wireless Sensor Systems, 2011, Vol. 1, Iss. 1, pp. 39-47.
  • S. Muruganathan, D. Ma, R. Bhasin, A. Fapojuwo, "A Centralized Energy-Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. , 2005, Vol. 43, Issue 3, pp. 8-13.
  • H. Luo, F. Ye, J. Cheng, S. Lu, L. Zhang, "TTDD: Two-Tier Data Dissemination in Large-Scale Wireless Sensor Networks," Wireless Networks, Springer Netherlands, 2005, Vol. 11, Issue 1, pp. 161-175.
  • Soro S. , Heinzelman W. , "Prolonging the Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks via Unequal Clustering", In Proceedings of the 5th IEEE International Workshop on Algorithms for Wireless, Mobile, Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks (WMAN), Denver, CO, USA, 4–8 April 2005; pp. 236–243.
  • Aslam N. , Phillips W. , Robertson W. , Sivakumar S. , "A multi-criterion optimization technique for energy efficient cluster formation in wireless sensor networks" Inf. Fusion 2011, vol. 12, pp. 202–212.