Call for Paper - January 2024 Edition
IJCA solicits original research papers for the January 2024 Edition. Last date of manuscript submission is December 20, 2023. Read More

The Critical Success Factors Study for e-Government Implementation

International Journal of Computer Applications
© 2014 by IJCA Journal
Volume 89 - Number 16
Year of Publication: 2014
Darmawan Napitupulu

Darmawan Napitupulu. Article: The Critical Success Factors Study for e-Government Implementation. International Journal of Computer Applications 89(16):23-32, March 2014. Full text available. BibTeX

	author = {Darmawan Napitupulu},
	title = {Article: The Critical Success Factors Study for e-Government Implementation},
	journal = {International Journal of Computer Applications},
	year = {2014},
	volume = {89},
	number = {16},
	pages = {23-32},
	month = {March},
	note = {Full text available}


The high failure of e-Government is a motivation to do the research about Success Factors of e-Government implementation. Studying CSFs is an important issue that helps to implement e-Government successfully and to avoid failure. There have been various Success Factors of e-Government implementation obtained from CSFs Studies by other researcher but gives no overall big picture. In this paper, author wants to synthesize some studies to get a generic model of Success Factor for e-Government implementation. The method used in this study is Meta-Ethnography for synthesizing qualitative findings about 94 studies and 571 CSFs concepts. The result from the study is 55 Synthesized Success factors that Government organization and all parties must pay attention to ones for successful e-Government implementation.


  • Abdelghaffar H. , Bakry W. H and Duquenoy P. , 2005. E-Government : a New Vision for Success, CiteSeer.
  • Abdelsalam, H. , Reddick, C and Elkadi, H. , 2013. Success and Failure of Local E-Government Projects: Lessons Learned from Egypt, Egyptian Informatics Journal 14(2), pp 165-173.
  • Adeel Ghayur, 2006. Towards Good Governance: Developing an e-Government, The Pakistan Development Review 45:4 Part II pp 1011-1025.
  • Akhavan, P. , R. Hosnavi and M. S. Adalati, 2010. Essential issues in knowledge management system implementation: Lessons from iranian IT-based companies. Proceeding of the 11th International Conference, pp: 503-515.
  • AlAwadhi, S. and A. Morris, 2008. The use of the UTAUT model in the adoption of e-government services in Kuwait. Proceeding of the 41st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, pp: 219-230.
  • Al-Azri, 2010. The successful implementation of e-Government transformation : A case study in Oman. European, Mediterranean, Middle Eastern Conference of Information System, Abu Dhabi, UAE.
  • Alexander N. Chen and Yumei Chen, 2009. Critical Success Factor on E-Government Application-from the view of government workers in Guandong, The 9th International Conference on Electronic Business, Macau.
  • Ali M. AL-Naimat, Abdullah, M. , Ahmad, M. , 2013, The Critical Success Factors for e-Government Implementation in Jordan, Proceeding of 4th International Conference on Computing and Informatics, Sarawak Malaysia.
  • Al-Rashidi, H. , 2010, Examining Internal Challenges to E-Government Implementation from system user perspective, European and Mediterranean Conference of Information System, Abu Dhabi UAE.
  • Al-Kaabi, R. , 2010. Critical success factors of egovernment: A proposal model for e-Government implementation in Kingdom of Bahrain. Proceedingof the 6th International Conference one-Government (ICEG), pp: 1-9.
  • Al-Shehry, A. , S. Rogerson, N. B. Fairweather and M. Prior, 2006. The motivations for change towards e-government adoption: Case studies from Saudi Arabia. Proceeding of the eGovernment Workshop, pp: 1-21.
  • Altameem, T. , M. Zairi and S. Alshawi, 2006. Critical success factors of E-government: A proposed model for E-government implementation. Proceeding of Innovations in Information Technology. Dubai, pp: 1-5.
  • Amiri, M. , A. Sarfi, M. S. Kahreh and M. H. Maleki, 2010. Investigation the critical success factors of CRM implementation in the urban management; Case study: Tehran municipality. Int. Bull. Bus. Admin. , 9: 120-132.
  • Angelopoulos, S. , Kitsios, F. , Papadopoulos, T. , 2010. New Service Development in e-Government: identifying critical success factors, Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, 4(1), pp 95-118.
  • Apostolou, D. , G. Mentza, L. Stojanovic, B. Thoenssen and T. P. Lobo, 2011. A collaborative decision framework for managing changes in e-government services. Gover. Inform. Quart. , 28: 101-116.
  • Ardal, C. , A. Alstadsaeter and J. A. Rottingen, 2011. Common characteristics of open source software development and applicability for drug discovery: A systematic review. Health Res. Policy Syst. , 9: 1-161.
  • Asopi, 2008. Innovation culture and bureau reformation, Jurnal Ilmu Administrasi, 5(3), pp. 246-255.
  • Assar, S. , I. Boughzala and I. Boydens, 2011. Back to Practice: A Decade of Research in E-Government. In: Assar, S. , I. Boughzala and I. Boydens (Eds. ), Practical Studies in E-Government: Best Practices from Around the World. Springer, New York, pp: 1-12.
  • Atkin S. , Lewin S. , Smith H. , Engel M. , Fretheim A. , and Volmink J, Conducting a meta-ethnography of qualitative literature ; Lesson learnt, BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008, 8:21.
  • Axelsson, K. , K. Melin and F. Soderstrom, 2011. Analyzing best practice and critical success factors in a health information system case-are there any shortcuts to successful it implementation? Proceeding of the 19th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), pp: 1-12.
  • Aziz, N. M. and H. Salleh, 2011. People critical success factors of IT/IS implementation: Malaysian perspectives. World Acad. Sci. Eng. Technol. , 80: 75. Azizan, N. , 2011. Critical success factors for knowledge transfer via australian and Malaysian government education websites: A comparative case study. Ph. D. Thesis, School of Business IT and Logistics, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
  • Bacsich, P. , 2009. Reviewing (traces of) European virtual campuses. Report Critical Success Factors, EuroPACE ivzw, Heverlee, Belgium.
  • Barnett-Page, E. and J. Thomas, 2009. Methods for the Synthesis of Qualitative Research: A Critical Review. BMC Med. Res. Methodol. , 9: 59. Basahel, A. M. , 2009. Evaluating the adoption of Strategic Information Systems Planning (SISP) in global organisations. Ph. D. Thesis, Brunel Business School, Brunel University, UK.
  • Beck, C. T. , 2002. Postpartum depression: A metasynthesis. Qual. Health Res. , 12(4): 453-472.
  • Britten, N. and C. Pope, 2012. Medicine Taking for Asthma: A Worked Example of MetaEthnography. In: Hannes, K. and C. Lockwood (Eds. ), Synthesizing Qualitative Research: Choosing the Right Approach. John Wiley and Sons, Ltd. , West Sussex, pp: 41-57.
  • Britten, N. , R. Campbell, C. Pope, J. Donovan, M. Morgan and R. Pill, 2002. Using meta ethnography to synthesise qualitative research: A worked example. Journal of Health Service Research & Policy, 7(4): 209-215.
  • Bullen, C. V. and J. F. Rockart, 1981. A primer oncritical success factors. Research Report. Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA. CISR No. 69.
  • Campbell, R. , P. Pound, M. Morgan, G. Daker-White, N, Britten, R. Pill, L. Yardley, C. Pope and J, Donovan, 2011. Evaluating meta-ethnography: systematic analysis and synthesis of qualitative research, Health Technology Assessment 2011, Vol 15, No 43.
  • Campbell, R. , P. Pound, C. Pope, N. Britten, R. Pill, M. Morgan and J. Donovan, 2003. Evaluating meta-ethnography: A synthesis of qualitative research on lay experiences of diabetes and diabetes care. Soc. Sci. Med. , 56: 671-684.
  • Carter, L. and F. Belanger, 2004. Citizen adoption of electronic government initiatives. Proceeding of the 37th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, pp: 1-10.
  • Chen, Y. , 2012. The empirical analysis model on critical success factors for emergency management engineering information system. Proceeding of the International Symposium on Emergency Management, pp: 234-239.
  • Christoph B. , 2012. Success Factors for an e-Government Strategy : Australian Experience, Indonesian challenges, Jurnal Studi Pemerintahan, 3 (1).
  • Chu, P. Y. , N. Hsiao, F. W. Lee and C. W. Chen, 2004. Exploring success factors for taiwan's government electronic tendering system: Behavioral perspectives from end users. Gov. Inform. Quart. ,21: 219-234.
  • Daniel, D. R. , 1961. Management information crisis. Harvard Bus. Rev. , 39(5): 111-121.
  • DeLone, W. H. , & McLean, E. R. (1992). Information Systems Success: The Quest for the Dependent Variable. Information Systems Research, 3(1), 60-95.
  • DeLone, W. H. , & McLean, E. R. (2003). The DeLone and McLean model of information systems success: A ten year update. Journal of Management Information Systems, 19(4), 9-30.
  • Dixon-Woods, M. , S. Agarwal, D. Jones, B. Young and A. Sutton, 2005. Synthesising qualitative and quantitative evidence: A review of possible methods. J. Health Serv. Res. Policy, 10(1): 45-53.
  • Donzelli, P. and P. Bresciani, 2003. Goal-oriented requirements engineering: A case study in Egovernment. Lect. Notes Comput. Sc. , 2681: 601-616.
  • Drigas A. S. and Koukianakis L, 2013. E-Government Applications for the Information Society, IJCSI International Journal Computer Science Issue, Vol. 10, Issue 1.
  • Ebbers, W. E. and J. A. G. M. van Dijk, 2007. Resistance and support to electronic government, building a model of innovation. Gov. Inform. Quart. , 24: 554-575.
  • Edwards, M. , M. Davies and A. Edwards, 2009. What are the external influences on information exchange and shared decision-making in healthcare consultations: A meta-eynthesis of the literature. Patient Educ. Counsel. , 75: 37-52.
  • Elmeziane, K. , M. Elmeziane and S. Chuanmin, 2011. Critical success factors of enterprise resource planning implementation in China: Case study in Shanghai City. Proceeding of the International Conference on E-Business and E-Government (IEEE), pp: 1-4.
  • EU, 2012. ICT for Government and Public Services, [Online]. Retrieved from: http://ec. europa. eu/information_society/activities/egovernment/index_en. htm, (Accessed on: March 5th, 2012).
  • Fasanghari, M. and F. Habibipour, 2009. E-government performance evaluation with fuzzy numbers. Proceeding of the International Association of Computer Science and Information TechnologySpring Conference, pp: 231-235.
  • Fortune, J. and D. White, 2006. Framing of project critical success factors by a systems mode. Int. J. Project Manage. , 24: 53-65.
  • Furuholt, B. and Wahid, F. , 2008. E-Government Challenges and The Role of Political Leadership in Indonesia : the case of Sragen, Proceeding of the 41st International Conference on System Sciences.
  • Gagne, J. C. D. and K. Walters, 2009. Online teaching experience: A Qualitative Meta Synthesis (QMS). MERLOT J. Online Learn. Teach. , 5(4): 577-589. 1699.
  • Gates, L. P. , 2010. Strategic planning with critical success factors and future scenarios: An integrated strategic planning framework. Carnegie Mellon University, USA. Technical Report CMU/SEI2010-TR-037.
  • Geetika, P. N. , 2006. Competitiveness Through Egovernment in Power Sector: Identification of Critical Success Factors to Acquire Winning Edge. In: Mitra, R. K. , (Ed. ), E-government: Macro Issues. GIFT Publishing, New Delhi, pp: 302-313.
  • Gichoya, D. , 2005. Factors affecting the successful implementation of ICT projects in government. Elec. J. e-Go8v. , 3(4): 175-184.
  • Gil-Garcia, J. R. and T. A. Pardo, 2005. E-government success factors: Mapping practical tools to theoretical foundations. Gov. Inform. Quart. , 22: 187-216.
  • Gil-Garcia, J. R. and I. J. Martinez-Moyano, 2007. Understanding the evolution of e-Government: The influence of systems of rules on public sector dynamics. Gov. Inform. Quart. , 24: 266-290.
  • Grunert, K. G. and C. Ellegaard, 1992. The Concept of Key Success Factors: Theory and Method. MAPP Working Paper, No 4. Gunasekarana, A. and E. W. T. Ngai, 2008. Adoption of e-procurement in Hong Kong: An empirical research. Int. J. Prod. Econ. , 113: 159-175.
  • Hazri K. and Patrick L, 2009. E-Government Implementation and Leadership – The Brunei Case Study, Electronic Journal of e-Government, 7(3), pp. 271-282.
  • Heeks, R. , 2004. Causes of e-Government Success and Failure: Factor Model. Institute for Development Policy and Management, University of Manchester
  • Heeks, R. , 2006. Implementing and Managing eGovernment an International Text. SAGE Publications, London.
  • Ho, J. and T. A. Pardo, 2004. Toward the success of eGovernment initiatives: mapping known success factors to the design of practical tools. Proceeding of the 37th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, pp: 1-6.
  • Ho, J. C. and Y. C. Wang, 2009. Aligning key success factors with value activities: Case of the analogy IC design industry. Proceeding of the PICMET, pp: 152-157.
  • Horst, M. , M. Kuttschreuter and J. M. Gutteling, 2007a. Perceived usefulness, personal experiences, risk perception and trust as determinants of adoption of e-Government services in the Netherlands. Comput. Hum. Behav. , 23: 1838-1852.
  • Horsti, A. , 2007b. Essays on electronic business models and thesis evaluation. Ph. D. Thesis, Helsinki School of Economics, Finland.
  • Hossan, C. G. , Habib, M. W. & Kushchu, I. (2009). Success and Failure Factors for E-Government Projects Implementation in Developing Countries: A Study on the Perception of Government Officials of Bangladesh, in Usha, G. (Eds), E-Governance: Policy and Perspectives, Amicus Books, ICFAI university press, Hyderabad, pages 136-151 Chapter 6.
  • Hossain, M. D. , J. Moon, J. K. Kim and Y. C. Choe, 2011. Impacts of organizational assimilation of E-Government systems on business value creation: A structuration theory approach. Electron. Commer. R. A. , 10: 576-594.
  • Huang, H. C. , K. Bruzga and Y. P. Wang, 2011. Business key success factors in China and the West. Afr. J. Bus. Manag. , 5(22): 9363-9369.
  • Hung, S. Y. , C. M. Chang and T. J. Yu, 2006. Determinants of user acceptance of the eGovernment services: The case of online tax filing and payment system. Gov. Inform. Quart. , 23: 97-122.
  • Hung, S. Y. , K. Z. Tang, C. M. Chang and C. D. Ke, 2009. User acceptance of intergovernmental services: An example of electronic document management system. Gov. Inform. Quart. , 26: 387-397.
  • Icli, M. Y. , 2005. A study on the application of ecommerce in Turkish mining industry. Ph. D. Thesis, the Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Middle East Technical University, Turkey.
  • Ikhsan Darmawan, 2011. E-Government : Preliminary Study in Sragen, Proceeding Simposium Nasional Otonomi Daerah , Universitas Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Serang Banten.
  • Jha, R. and S. Shivani, 2007. Towards a methodology for defining implementation strategies for E-governance adoption: Indian states. Int. J. Appl. Manag. Technol. , 5(3): 105-122.
  • Jiang, X. , 2011. Enhancing users' continuance intention to egovernment portals: An empirical study. Proceeding of the 7th International Conference on ICT and Knowledge Engineering, pp: 1-4.
  • Jingjing, W. , 2006. A study of perceived key success factors among salmon importers and distributions in Shanghai. Ph. D. Thesis, Department of Social Science and Marketing, Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of Tromsø, Norway.
  • Joia, L. A. , 2004. Developing Government-to Government enterprises in brazil: A heuristic model drawn from multiple case studies. Int. J. Inform. Manag. , 24: 147-166.
  • Junaidi, 2011. Dukungan e-Government dalam upaya peningkatan kualitas pelayanan public di Era otonomi daerah : Kasus Best Practice dari sejumlah daerah di Indonensia, Proceeding Simposium Nasional Otonomi Daerah, LAB-ANE FISIP Untirta.
  • Khayun, V. and P. Ractham, 2011. Measuring e-excise tax success factors: Applying the delone and mclean information systems success model. Proceeding of the 44th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, pp: 1-10.
  • Kim, S. , H. J. Kim and H. Lee, 2009. An institutional analysis of an e-government system for anti- corruption: The case of OPEN. Gov. Inform. Quart. , 26: 42-50.
  • Kumar, K. D. , H. Roth and L. Karunamoorthy, 2002. Critical success factors for the implementation of integrated automation solutions with PC based control. Proceeding of the 10th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation-MED, pp: 286-296.
  • Lin, C. , 2007. An investigation on the business strategies and key success factors of financial holding companies in taiwan. Ph. D. Thesis, The University of Nottingham, U. K.
  • Lin, F. , S. S. Fofanah and D. Liang, 2011. Assessing citizen adoption of e-government initiatives in gambia: A validation of the technology acceptance model in information systems success. Gov. Inform. Quart. , 28: 271-279. 170700.
  • Liu, Y. , Y. Chen and C. Zhou, 2006. Exploring success factors for web-based e-Government services: Behavioral perspective from end users. Proceeding of 2nd Information and Communication Technologies, pp: 937-942.
  • Lofstedt, U. , 2008. e-Services for and by citizens towards e-participation and social systems design for development of local public e-services. Ph. D. Thesis, Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
  • Luk, S. C. Y. , 2009. The impact of leadership and stakeholders on the success/failure of egovernment service: Using the case study of stamping service in Hong Kong. Gov. Inform. Quart. , 26: 594-604.
  • Luna-Reyes, L. F. , J. R. Gil-Garcia and C. B. Cruz, 2007. Collaborative digital government in mexico: Some lessons from federal web-based interorganizational information integration initiatives. Gov. Inform. Quart. , 24: 808-826.
  • M. Dhenda, 2013. Implementation of e-Service for information development in Kutai Kartanegara, eJournal Ilmu Komunikasi, 1(1) : 345-361.
  • Malpass, A. , A. Shawa, D. Sharp, F. Walter, G. Feder, M. Ridd and D. Kessler, 2009. Medication career'' or ''moral career''? the two sides of managing antidepressants: A meta-ethnography of patients' experience of antidepressants. Soc. Sci. Med. , 68: 154-168.
  • McDermott, E. , H. Graham and V. Hamilton, 2004. Experiences of being a teenage mother in the UK: A report of a systematic review of qualitative studies. Research Report, Social and Public Health Services Unit, University of Glasgow, Scotland.
  • McMillan, S. , 2009. Government electronic and mobile service delivery: A success factors model. Ph. D. Thesis, Faculty of Business and Law, School of Management and Information Systems, Victoria University, Victoria, Australia.
  • Meneklis, V. and C. Douligeris, 2009. Bridging theory and practice in e-Government: A set of guidelines for architectural design. Gov. Inform. Quart. , 27: 70-81.
  • Microsoft Corporation, 2010. Connected Government Framework: Strategies to Transform Government in The 2. 0 World. Microsoft Corporation White Paper.
  • Misbahuddin, A. , 2011. Analysis of e-Government implementation success by optimalization use of ICT and human resources quality, Jurnal Aplikasi Manajemen, 9(1).
  • Palo Alto, CA. Mirchandani, D. A. , J. H. Johnson Jr and K. Joshi, 2008. Perspectives of citizens towards e-Government in Thailand and Indonesia: A multigroup analysis. Inf. Syst. Front. , 10: 483-497.
  • Nfuka, E. N. and L. Rusu, 2010. Critical success factors for effective IT governance in the public sector organisations in a developing country: The case of Tanzania. Proceeding of the 18th European Conference on Information Systems, pp: 1-15.
  • Nia K and Romi R. , 2011. Analysis of e-Government implementation policy thorough human resources management information system, Majalah Ilmiah Unikom, 7(2).
  • Nishanbaev, T. and N. B. Usmanova, 2010. E- government implementation strategy: Approach for developing countries. Proceeding of the 4th International Conference on Application of Information and Communication Technologies (AICT), pp: 1-3.
  • Noblit, G. W. and R. D. Hare, 1988. Meta-Ethnography: Synthesizing Qualitative Studies. SAGE Publications, Inc. , London.
  • Nograsek, J. , 2011. Change Management as a Critical Success Factor in e-Government Implementation, Business System Research, 2(2), pp. 1-56.
  • Papantoniou, A. , E. Hattab, F. Afrati, E. Kayafas and V. Lournos, 2001. Change management, a critical success factor for e-Government. Proceeding of 12th International Workshop on Database and Expert Systems Applications, pp: 402-406.
  • Park, R. , 2008. Measuring factors that influence the success of E-government initiatives. Proceedings of the 41st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, pp: 218-228.
  • Patterson Jr, L. O. and B. C. Tonder, 2009. External strategic analysis of the aviation Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul (MRO) industry and potential market opportunities for fleet readiness center southwest. MBA Professional Report, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, USA.
  • Ramadhan A. , Sensuse Dana Indra, Muladno and Arymurthy Aniati Murni, Synthesizing Success Factor for e-Government initiative, Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology 6(9) : 1685-1702, 2013.
  • Rehman, M. and V. Esichaikul, 2011. Factors influencing the adoption of E-government in Pakistan. Proceeding of International Conference on E-Business and E-Government (ICEE), pp: 1-4.
  • Reinwald, A. and P. Kraemmergaard, 2012. Managing stakeholders in transformational government-A case study in a danish local Government. Gov. Inform. Quart. , 29: 133-141.
  • Rirchard A. Caralli, 2004. The critical success factor method : Establishing a foundation for enterprise security management, Technical Report CMU/SEI-2004-TR-010, ESC TR-TR-2004-010.
  • Riedl, R. , F. Roithmayr and B. Schenkenfelder, 2007. Using the structured-case approach to build theory in E-Government. Proceeding of the 40th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, pp: 93-103.
  • Rockhart, John F. , 1979 "Chief Executives Define Their Own Data Needs. " Harvard Business Review 57, 2.
  • Rockart John F. , 1982. The Changing role of the Information system executive : A critical success factors perspective, Center for Information System Research, Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  • Rokhman, A. , 2011. Potential users and critical success factors of e-Government Services : The case of Indonesia, International conference on public organization, pp: 231-244.
  • Rorissa, A. and D. Demissie, 2010. An analysis of african e-Government service websites. Gov. Inform. Quart. , 27: 161-169.
  • Saebo, O. , J. Rose and L. S. Flak, 2008. The shape of eParticipation: characterizing an emerging research area. Gov. Inform. Quart. , 25: 400-428.
  • Saebo, O. , L. S. Flak and M. K. Sein, 2011. Understanding the dynamics in e-participation initiatives: Looking through the genre and stakeholder lenses. Gov. Inform. Quart. , 28: 416-425.
  • Sang, S. and J. D. Lee, 2009. A conceptual model of eGovernment acceptance in public sector. Proceeding of the 3rd International Conference on Digital Society, pp:71-76.
  • Sarantis, D. , D. Askounis and S. Smithson, 2009. Critical appraisal on project management approaches in e-Govemment. Proceeding of the 7th International Conference on ICT and Knowledge Engineering, pp: 44-49.
  • Schelin, S. H. , 2004. Managing the human side of information technology: A Public-private comparison of chief information officers. Ph. D. Thesis, Graduate Faculty, North Carolina State University, USA.
  • Scholl, H. (2002). "E-government: A special Case of ICT-enabled Business Process Change", Proceedings of the 36th Hawaii International Conference on system sciences IEEE.
  • Shahkooh, K. A. and A. Abdollahi, 2007. A strategy based model for e-government planning. Proceeding of the International Multi-Conference on Computing in the Global Information Technology (ICCGI), pp: 45.
  • Shahkooh, K. A. , M. Sadeghi and N. D. Mamaghani, 2011. Interoperability evaluation of Iranian organizations through proposed national Egovernment interoperability framework (Case Study of Tehran Municipality). Adv. Inform. Sci. Serv. Sci. , 2(1): 62-77.
  • Shajari, M. and Z. Ismail, 2010. A comprehensive adoption model of e-government services in developing countries. Proceeding of IEEE International Conference on Advanced Management Science (ICAMS), pp: 548-553.
  • Stemberger, M. I. and J. Jaklic, 2007. Towards Egovernment by business process change-A methodology for public sector. Int. J. Inform. Manag. , 27: 221-232.
  • Sun, L. , 2009. A study on E-government success framework based on IS success model. Proceeding of the 1st International Conference on Information Science and Engineering (ICISE), pp: 2255-2258.
  • Sutanta, E. and Mustofa, K. , 2012. Strategy of Web Service Development for Integrated e-Government System in Bantul Yogyakarta, Sisfotenika, STMIK Pontianak.
  • Thomas, J. and A. Harden, 2007. Methods for The Thematic Synthesis of Qualitative Research in Systematic Reviews. NCRM Working Paper Series, ESRC National Centre for Research Methods, UK. Number (10/07).
  • Tokdemir, G. , 2009. An assessment model for web based information system effectiveness. Ph. D. Thesis, The Department of Information Systems, The Graduate School of Informatics, The Middle East Technical University, Turkey.
  • Traunmiiller, R. and M. Wimmer, 2001. Directions in E-Government: Processes, portals, knowledge. Proceeding of 12th International Workshop on Database and Expert Systems Applications, pp: 313-317.
  • Tseng, P. T. Y. , D. C. Yen, Y. C. Hung and N. C. F. Wang, 2008. To explore managerial issues and their implications on e-government deployment in the public sector: Lessons from Taiwan's bureau of foreign trade. Gov. Inform. Quart. , 25: 734-756.
  • Tung, L. L. and O. Rieck, 2005. Adoption of electronic government services among business organizations in singapore. J. Strat. Inform. Syst. , 14: 417-440.
  • Tuquero, J. M. , 2011. Using a meta-ethnographic synthesis of support services in distance learning programs. J. Inform. Technol. Educ. Innovat. Practice, 10: 157-179.
  • UN, 2005. UN Global E-government Readiness Report 2005 From E-government to E-inclusion. UN Publications, New York.
  • United Nations Department for Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA) (2003a). "E-government Readiness Assessment Survey", unpan1. un. org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/un/unpan011509. pdf
  • Vermeire, E. , H. Hearnshaw, A. Ratsep, G. Levasseurd, D. Petek, H. van Dam, F. van der Horst, N. Vinter Repalust, J. Wens, J. Dale and P. V. Royen, 2007. Obstacles to adherence in living with type-2 diabetes: An international qualitative study using meta-ethnography (EUROBSTACLE). Primary Care Diabetes, 1: 25-33.
  • Vidigal L, 2012. Critical Success Factors for e-Government A practical approach, Institute of Public Administration and European Integration.
  • Wahed, M. E. and El Gohary E. M. , 2013. The Future Vision for the Design of e-Government in Egypt, IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol 10, Issue 3.
  • Wang, T. , Y. Cao and S. Yang, 2010. Exploring building the model of sustainable trust in Egovernment. Proceeding of 2nd IEEE International Conference on Information and Financial Engineering (ICIFE), pp: 698-701.
  • Warda, M. A. and S. Mitchell, 2004. A comparison of the strategic priorities of public and private sector information resource management executives. Gov. Inform. Quart. , 21: 284-304.
  • Wicander, G. , 2001. Mobile supported e-Government systems. Ph. D. Thesis, Department of Information Systems and Project Management, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
  • Wood-Harper, T. , Ibrahim, O. and Ithnin, N. (2004), "An Interconnected Success Factor Approach for Service Functional in Malaysian Electronic Government", Sixth International Conference on Electronic Commerce, ACM.
  • Wu, H. H. , Y. T. Tang and J. W. Shyu, 2010. An integrated approach of Kano's model and importance-performance analysis in identifying key success factors. Afr. J. Bus. Manag. , 4(15): 3238-3250.
  • Yoon, J. and M. Chae, 2009. Varying criticality of key success factors of national E-strategy along the status of economic development of nations. Gov. Inform. Quart. , 26: 25-34.
  • Zarei, B. and A. Ghapanchi, 2008. Guidelines for Government-to-Government initiative architecture in developing countries. Int. J. Inform. Manag. , 28: 277-282.