Call for Paper - January 2024 Edition
IJCA solicits original research papers for the January 2024 Edition. Last date of manuscript submission is December 20, 2023. Read More

Intelligent Software Agent Technology: An Overview

International Journal of Computer Applications
© 2014 by IJCA Journal
Volume 89 - Number 2
Year of Publication: 2014
G. S. Bhamra
A. K. Verma
R. B. Patel

G S Bhamra, A K Verma and R B Patel. Article: Intelligent Software Agent Technology: An Overview. International Journal of Computer Applications 89(2):19-31, March 2014. Full text available. BibTeX

	author = {G. S. Bhamra and A. K. Verma and R. B. Patel},
	title = {Article: Intelligent Software Agent Technology: An Overview},
	journal = {International Journal of Computer Applications},
	year = {2014},
	volume = {89},
	number = {2},
	pages = {19-31},
	month = {March},
	note = {Full text available}


Mobile Agent is an autonomously transportable code migrating itself from one node to another in a heterogeneous network without losing its operability. They have become commercially practicable with recent technologies and have the potential for revolutionizing distributed and network applications more recently in wireless sensor networks and bioinformatics. The main aim of this study is to motivate the researchers into the field of intelligent software agent technology by providing an overview and updated comparison of the current mobile agent platforms.


  • Nwana, H. S. 1996. Software Agents: An Overview. Knowledge Engineering Review, 11(3):1-40, Sept 1996.
  • Bradshaw, J. M. 1997. An introduction to software agents. Software Agents, MIT Press Cambridge, MA, USA, pp. 3-46, 1997.
  • Klusch, M. 2001. Information Agent technology for the internet: A survey. Data and Knowledge Engineering, Special Issue on Intelligent Information Integration, Elsevier Science 36:337-372, 2001.
  • Hewitt, C. 1977. Viewing Control Structures as Patterns of Passing Messages. Artificial Intelligence, 8(3): 323-364,1977.
  • Luck. M. , et al. 2005. Agent technology: computing as interaction (A Roadmap for Agent Based Computing). AgentLink, 2005.
  • Gilbert, D. , Aparicio, M. , Atkinson, B. , Brady, S. , Ciccarino, J. , Grosof, B. , O'Connor, P. , Osisek, D. , Pritko, S. , Spagna, R. , and Wilson, L. 1995. IBM Intelligent Agent Strategy. IBM Corporation, 1995.
  • Wooldridge, M. and Jennings, N. R. 1995. Intelligent Agents: Theory and Practice. Knowledge Engineering Review, 10(2):115-152, 1995.
  • Franklin, S. and Graesser, A. 1996. Is it an Agent, or just a Program? : A Taxonomy for Autonomous Agents. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Intelligent Agents III, Agent Theories, Architectures, and Languages, Springer-Verlag, pp. 21-35, 1996.
  • Dilyana, S. and Petya, G. 2002. Building distributed applications with Java mobile agents. International e-Business Plan Tutorial – Appendix D: SOFTWARE (INTELLIGENT) AGENTS, Distance Learning at Prentice Hall , Prentice-Hall, Inc. , 2003 , available at http://myphliputil. pearsoncmg. com/student/bp_turban_introec_1/Turban-AppendixD. pdf
  • Shoham, Y. 1993. Agent-oriented programming. Artificial Intelligence, 60(1):51?92, 1993.
  • Bratman, M. E. , Israel, D. J. , and Pollack, M. E. 1988. Plans and resource-bounded practical reasoning. Computational Intelligence, 4:349?355, 1988.
  • Pham, V. A. and Karmouch, A. 1998. Mobile Software Agents: An Overview. IEEE Communications Magazine, pp. 26-37, July 1998.
  • Patel, R. B. and Garg, K. 2001. PMADE: A Platform for mobile agent Distribution & Execution. In: Proceedings of the 5th World Multi Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics (SCI2001) and 7th International Conference on Information System Analysis and Synthesis (ISAS 2001),Orlando, Florida, USA, July 22-25, 4: 287-293, 2001. See also web page http://www. drrbpatel. org/papers/pmade. html
  • Patel, R. B. and Garg, K. 2004. A new paradigm for mobile agent computing. WSEAS Transactions on Computers, 3(1):57-64, 2004.
  • Picco, G. P. 2001. Mobile Agents: An Introduction. Microprocessors and Microsystems, Elsevier, 25(2):65-74, 2001, doi:10. 1016/S0141-9331(01)00099-0
  • Wooldridge, M. 2002. Intelligent agents: The key concepts. In: Mark, V. et al. (Eds. ), Multi-Agent-System and Applications, LNCS, 2322:3-43, Springer-Verlag, , 2002.
  • Milojicic, D. , et al. 1998. MASIF The OMG Mobile Agent System Interoperability Facility. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Mobile Agents (MA '98), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 1477:14-15, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 1998.
  • Finin, T. , et al. 1997. KQML as an Agent Communication Language. In: Bradshaw, J. (Ed. ), Software Agents, MIT Press/AAAI Press Cambridge, MA, pp. 291-316,1997.
  • O'Brien, P. and Nicol, R. 1999. FIPA- Towards a Standard for Software Agents. British Telecommunication (BT) Technology Journal, 16(3):51-59, 1999.
  • Oracle and/or its affiliates 2005. Java Object Serialization Specification, available at http://docs. oracle. com/javase/7/docs/platform/serialization/spec/serialTOC. html
  • Gray, R. S, et al. 2000. Mobile agents: Motivations and state-of-the art systems. Dept. of Computer Science, Dartmouth College Hanover, New Hampshire, 2000, available at http://www. cs. dartmouth. edu/~dfk/papers/gray-motivation-tr. pdf
  • Alberola, J. M. , et al. 2010. A performance evaluation of three multiagent platforms. Artificial Intelligence Review, 34:145–176,doi:10. 1007/s10462-010-9167-9
  • Cardoso, R. C. , Diego, C. , Bordini, M. , and Rafael, H. 2013. Agent Programming and Multi-agent Systems project (http://agentprogramming. com/) at Benchmarking Agent Programming Languages (APLs), http://www. inf. pucrs. br/maop. benchmarking/index. php
  • Lee, L. C. , Ndumu, D. T. , and Wilde, P. D. 1998. The stability, scalability and performance of multi-agent systems. British Telecommunication (BT) Technology Journal, 16(3):94–103,1998.
  • Venners, B. 1997. The Architecture of aglets. http://www. javaworld. com/article/2077639/core-java/the-architecture-of-aglets. html, See also Aglets Specification Draft 1. 1, Available at http://www. research. ibm. com/trl/aglets/spec11. htm
  • Lange, D. B. and Oshima, M. 1998. Programming and deploying Java mobile agents with Aglets. Addison Wesley, 1998.
  • Peine, H. and Stolpmann, T. 1997. The architecture of the ARA platform for mobile agents. In: Rothermel, K. and Popescu-Zeletin, R. , (Eds. ), Mobile Agents, LNCS, 1219:86–97, Springer-Verlag, 1997.
  • Tripathi, A. R. , Karnik, N. M. , Vora, M. K. , Ahmed, T. , and Singh, R. D. 1999. Mobile agent programming in Ajanta. In: Proceedings of the 19th IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems, pp. 190-197, 1999.
  • Wong, D. , et al. 1997. Concordia: An Infrastructure for Collaborating Mobile Agents. In: Rothermel, K. and Popescu-Zeletin, R. , (Eds. ), Mobile Agents, LNCS, 1219: 50–61, Springer-Verlag, 1997.
  • Gray, R. S. 1997. Agent Tcl: A Flexible and secure mobile agent system, Ph. D. Thesis , Dept. of Computer Science, Dartmouth College Hanover, New Hampshire, 30th June 1997.
  • Gray, R. S. , et al. 1998. D'Agents: Security in a multiple-language, mobile-agent system. In: Vigna, G. (Ed. ), Mobile Agents and Security, LNCS,1419:154-187, Springer-Verlag, 1998. Available at http://agent. cs. dartmouth. edu/papers/gray:security-book. pdf
  • Breugst, M. , et al. 1998. Grasshopper: A Mobile Agent Platform for IN Based Service Environments. In: Proceedings of the IEEE IN Workshop, Bordeaux, France, May 70-13, 1998, pp. 279-290,1998.
  • Lugmayr, W. 1999. Gypsy: a component-oriented mobile agent system. Available at citeseer. ist. psu. edu/lugmayr99gypsy. html
  • Minar, N. , Gray, M. , Roup, O. , Krikorian, R. , and Maes, P. 1999. Hive: distributed agents for networking things. In: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Agent Systems and Applications and Third International Symposium on Mobile Agents (ASA/MA'99), August 1999.
  • Cost, R. S. , Finin, T. , Labrou, Y. , Luan, X. , Peng, Y. , Soboroff, I. , Mayfield, J. , and Boughanam, A. 1998. Jackal: A Java based Tool for Agent Development. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Tools for Agent Development(AAAI-98), Madison, WI.
  • Silva, L. M. , Simoes, P. , Soares, G. , Martins, P. , Batista, V. , Renato, C. , Almeida, L. , and Stohr, N. 1999. JAMES: A Platform of Mobile Agents for the Management of Telecommunication Networks. LNCS,1699:76-95, Springer-Verlag, 1999.
  • Baumann, J. , et al. 1997. Mole - Concepts of a Mobile Agent System, Institute for Parallel and Distributed High-Performance Computers. Breitwiesenstraße 20-22, 70565 Stuttgart, pp. 1-25.
  • Bellavista, P. , et al. 1999. Secure and Open Mobile Agent Programming Environment. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Autonomous Decentralized Systems (ISADS '99), Tokyo, Japan, March 21-23, 1999, pp. 238-245. Available at http://lia. deis. unibo. it/research/SOMA/
  • Sudmann, N. P. 1996. TACOMA- Fundamental Abstractions supporting Agent Computing in A Distributed Environment. Ph. D. Thesis, Department of Computer Science, University of Tromsø, Norway, August 1996. Web page http://www. tacoma. cs. uit. no//index. html
  • Johansen, D. , Schneider, F. B. , and Renesse, R. 1998. What TACOMA Taught Us. Also in: Milojicic, D. , Douglis, F. , and Wheeler, R. (Eds. ), "Mobility, Mobile Agents and Process Migration - An edited Collection", Addison Wesley Publishing Company, 1998.
  • Collis, J. C. , Ndumu, D. T. , Nwana, H. S. , and Lee, L. C. 1998. The ZEUS agent building tool-kit. British Telecommunication (BT) Technology Journal, 16(3):60–68,1998.
  • Ten Hoeve, E. C. , Dastani, M. , Dignum, F. , and Meyer, J. -J. 2003. 3APL Platform. Master's Thesis, Utrech University. Available at http://www. cs. uu. nl/3apl/thesis/tenhoeve/tenhoeve. html or http://www. cs. uu. nl/3apl/
  • Ceccaroni, L. and Dale, J. 2002. The April Agent Platform - Features and Summary. Network Agent Research Group, Fujitsu Laboratories of America. Feb. 2002. Available at http://www. angelfire. com/scifi2/technopapa/2002_02___aap_v08. pdf
  • Bigus, J. P. , Schlosnagle, D. A. , Pilgrim, J. R. , Mills III,W. N. , and Diao, Y. 2002. ABLE: a toolkit for building multiagent autonomic systems. IBM Systems Journal, 41(3):350–371,2002.
  • Xu, H. and Shatz, S. M. 2003. Adk: an agent development kit based on a formal design model for multi-agent systems. Journal of Autonomous Software Engineering, 10(4):337–365,2003.
  • Acronymics, Inc. 2004. AgentBuilder- An Integrated Toolkit for Constructing Intelligent Software Agents. Reference Manual Version 1. 4, June 16, 2004, Available at http://www. agentbuilder. com/Documentation/ReferenceManual-v1. 4. pdf
  • Jarvinen, J. 2002. Agentdock platform BDI-agents. Minutor Ltd, www. cs. uta. fi/kurssit/AgO/ago7a. pdf
  • Brazier, F. , et al. 2002. Agentscape: middleware, resource management, and services. In: Proceedings of the 3rd international SANE conference, pp. 403–404, Available at www. iids. org/publications/sane02. pdf
  • Duvigneau, M, et al. 2003. Concurrent Architecture for a multi-agent Platform. In: Giunchiglia, F. , Odell, J. , and Weiß, G. (Eds. ) Revised Papers and Invited Contributions, 3rd international workshop Agent-Oriented Software Engineering (AOSE III), LNCS 2585:59–72, 2003,Springer-Verlag, 2003.
  • Contreras. M. , Germán, E. , Chi, M. , and Sheremetov, L. 2004. Design and implementation of a FIPA compliant agent platform in . NET. Journal of Object Technology, Special issue:. NET Technologies, 3(9):5–28, available at www. jot. fm/issues/issue_2004_10/article1. pdf?
  • AOS Group 2008. JACK - An Agent Infrastructure for Providing the Decision-Making Capability Required for Autonomous Systems. Available at http://www. agent-software. com/products/jack/
  • AOS Group 2011. C-BDI - A certifiable reasoning engine for intelligent & autonomous systems. Available at http://www. agent-software. com/products/c-bdi/
  • Helsinger, A. , Thome, M. , and Wright, T. 2004. Cougaar: a scalable, distributed multi-agent architecture. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics(SMC2004), 10-13 Oct. 2004, 2:1910–1917, doi: 10. 1109/ICSMC. 2004. 1399959
  • Snyder, R. D. , MacKenzie, D. C. , and Tomlinson, R. S. 2004. Robustness Infrastructure for Multi-Agent Systems, In: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference Open Cougaar 2004, New York, pp. 75-80, July 2004. Web page http://cougaar. org/
  • IA Inc. 2004. CybelePro - Intelligent Agent Framework, Version 3. 0 User's Guide. DISTRIBUTED INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS, Intelligent Automation Inc. (IAI), Rockville,2004, Available at http://www. i-a-i. com/products/doc/cybelepro/UsersGuide-CybelePro. pdf , Web page http://www. i-a-i. com/cybelepro/
  • Graham, J. R. , Decker K. , and Mersic, M. 2003. DECAF—A Flexible Multi Agent System Architecture. Autonomous Agents Multi-Agent Systems, 7(1–2):7–27,2003.
  • Poslad, S. , Buckle, P. , and Hadingham, R. 2000. The FIPA-OS agent platform: Open Source for Open Standards. Manchester, UK, April 2000. Available at http://fipa-os. sourceforge. net/docs/papers/FIPAOS. pdf
  • Emorphia and Contributions 2003a. FIPA-OS Developer's Guide. Emorphia Ltd 2003,mAvailable at http://fipa-os. sourceforge. net/docs/Developers_Guide. pdf
  • Emorphia and Contributions 2003b. FIPA-OS Inter-platform Communication Configuration Guide. nEmorphia Ltd 2003, Available at http://fipa-os. sourceforge. net/docs/Interplatform_Configuration_Guide. pdf
  • Riekki, J. , Huhtinen, J. , Ala-Siuru, P. , Alahuhta, P. , Kaartinen, J. , and Roning, J. 2003. Genie of the net, an agent platform for managing services on behalf of the user. Computer Communications, 26(11):1188–1198, July 2003.
  • Li, X. 2001. IMAGO: A Prolog-based System for Intelligent Mobile Agents. LNCS, 2164:21-30, 2001
  • Xu, Z. and Li, X. 2004. Protecting hosts against attacks in IMAGO system. In: Proceedings of the Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, (CCECE 2004) , Niagara Falls, 1:361-364, 2-5 May 2004, doi: 10. 1109/CCECE. 2004. 1345030
  • Bellifemine, F. , Caire, G. , Poggi, A. , and Rimassa, G. 2003. Jade a white paper. Telecom Italia EXP Magazine, 3(3):6–19, Web page of TILAB http://jade. tilab. com/
  • Bellifemine, F. L. , Caire, G. , and Greenwood, D. 2007. Developing Multi-Agent Systems with JADE. Wiley.
  • Bellifemine, F. , Caire, G. , Poggi, A. , and Rimassa, G. 2008. JADE: A software framework for developing multi-agent applications-Lessons learned. Information and Software Technology, 50(1–2):10–21.
  • Bordini, R. H. , Wooldridge, M. , and Hübner, J. F. 2007. Programming multi-agent systems in AgentSpeak using Jason. Wiley Series in Agent Technology,Wiley, New York.
  • Gutknecht, O. and Ferber, J. 2001. The madkit agent platform architecture. LNCS, 1887:48–551,2001,web site http://www. madkit. org/
  • Shi, Z. , Zhang, H. , Cheng, Y. , Jiang, Y. , Sheng, Q. , and Zhao, Z. 2004. Mage: an agent-oriented programming environment. In: Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE international conference on cognitive informatics (ICCI '04), Washington DC, pp. 250–257, 2004, doi: 10. 1109/ICCI. 2004. 20
  • Satoh, I. 2000a. MobileSpaces: A Framework for Building Adaptive Distributed Applications using a Hierarchical Mobile Agent System. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems(ICDCS), Taipai, pp. 161-168, 10-13 Apr 2000. doi: 10. 1109/ICDCS. 2000. 840918
  • Satoh, I. 2000b. A Formalism for Hierarchical Mobile Agents. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Software Engineering for Parallel and Distributed Systems(PDSE), Limerick, pp. 165-172, 10-11 Jun 2000. doi: 10. 1109/PDSE. 2000. 847863
  • Ahmad, H. F. , Suguri, H. , Ali, A. , Malik, S. , Mugal, M. , Shafiq, M. O. , Tariq, A. , and Basharat, A. 2005. Scalable fault tolerant Agent Grooming Environment - SAGE. In: Proceedings of the 4th international joint conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS'05),ACM Press,New York, pp. 125–126, doi:10. 1145/1082473. 1082816
  • Dikeneli, O. , Erdur, R. C. , Gumus, O. , Ekinci, E. E. , Gurcan, O. , Kardas, G. , Seylan, I. , and Tiryaki, A. M. 2006. SEAGENT: A Platform for Developing Semantic Web Based Multi Agent Systems. LNCS, 3963:1-13, Springer-Verlag,2006
  • Roth, V. and Jalali-Sohi, M. 2001. Concepts and architecture of a SEcurity-centric MObile Agent server. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Autonomous Decentralized Systems (ISADS), pp. 435 – 442, 2001, doi:10. 1109/ISADS. 2001. 917449
  • Tkito, R. and Karmouch, A. 2000. SHIPMAI: a secure and high performance mobile agent infrastructure. In: Proceedings of the Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (CCECE 2000), 2:1027 – 1031, 07-10 March 2000, doi: 10. 1109/CCECE. 2000. 849621
  • Escriva, M. , Palanca, J. , Aranda, G. , Garca-Fornes A. , Julian, V. , and Botti, V. 2006. A jabber-based multi-agent system platform. In: Proceedings of the 5th international joint conference on autonomous agents and multiagent systems (AAMAS06), ACM Press, New York, pp. 1282–1284, doi:10. 1145/1160633. 1160866
  • Ilarri, S. , Trillo, R. , and Mena, E. 2006. SPRINGS: A Scalable Platform for Highly Mobile Agents in Distributed Computing Environments. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on a World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM'06), Buffalo-Niagara Falls, NY, 2006 doi:10. 1109/WOWMOM. 2006. 103
  • Tryllian 2005. Tryllian's Agent Development Kit (ADK). Available at http://www. tryllian. com/adk. html
  • Wheeler, T. 2005. Voyager Architecture Best Practices, Recursion Software, Inc. , Texas, USA, 2005. Available at http://www. recursionsw. com/inc/wp/2005-03-30_Voyager_Architecture_Best_Practices_Voyager. pdf . Web page for Voyager is http://www. recursionsw. com/products/voyager/voyager-intro. html
  • Fok, C. -L. , Roman, G. -C. , and Lu, C. 2009. Agilla: A mobile agent middleware for self-adaptive wireless sensor networks. Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems, 4(3): Article 16 (July 2009), 26 pages. doi: 10. 1145/1552297. 1552299
  • Kwon, Y. , Sundresh,S. Mechitov, K. , and Agha, G. 2006. ActorNet: An Actor Platform for Wireless Sensor Networks. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS), pp. 1297-1300, 2006.
  • Aiello, F. , Fortino, G. , Gravina, R. , and Guerrieri, A. 2011. A Java-Based Agent Platform for Programming Wireless Sensor Networks. The Computer Journal, 54(3): 439-454.
  • Muldoon, C. , O'Hare, G. M. P. , O'Grady, M. J. , and Tynan, R. 2008. Agent Migration and Communication in WSNs. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing, Applications and Technologies (PDCAT 2008), Otago, pp. 425 – 430, 1-4 Dec. 2008, doi: 10. 1109/PDCAT. 2008. 58
  • Lopes, R. , Assis, F. , and Montez, C. 2011. MASPOT: A mobile agent system for Sun SPOT. In: Proceedings of the 10th international symposium on Autonomous decentralized systems (ISADS), pp. 25-31, 23-27 March 2011, doi: 10. 1109/ISADS. 2011. 10
  • Silva, L. M. , Soares, G. , Martins, P. , Batista, V. , and Santos, L. 2000. Comparing the performance of mobile agent systems: a study of benchmarking. Computer Communications, 23:769–778, 2000.
  • Ricordel, P. M. and Demazeau, Y. 2000. From Analysis to Deployment: A Multi-agent Platform Survey. LNCS, 1972:93-105, Springer-Verlag, 2000.
  • Silva, A. R. , Rom¨ao, A. , Deugo, D. , and Silva. M. M. D. 2001. Towards a reference model for surveying mobile agent systems. Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, 4(3):187–231, 2001.
  • Camacho, D. , Aler, R. , Castro, C. , and Molina, J. M. 2002. Performance evaluation of ZEUS, Jade, and SkeletonAgent frameworks. In: Proceedings of the IEEE international conference on Systems, man and cybernetics(ICSMC), 4:(6-9), Oct. 2002 , doi: 10. 1109/ICSMC. 2002. 1173303
  • Vrba, P. 2003. Java-based agent platform evaluation. LNCS, 2744:47-58, Springer-Verlag, 2003.
  • Cortese, E. , Quarta, F. , and Vitaglione, G. 2003. Scalability and performance of JADE message transport system. EXP 3:52–65.
  • Chmiel, K. , Tomiak, D. , Gawinecki, M. , and Karczmarek, P. 2004. Testing the efficency of JADE agent platform. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Computing / 3rd International Workshop on Algorithms, Models and Tools for Parallel Computing on Heterogeneous Networks (ISPDC/HeteroPar'04), pp. 49–56,2004. Burbeck, K. , Garpe, D. , and Nadjm-Tehrani, S. 2004. Scale-up and performance studies of three agent platforms. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Performance, Computing, and Communications (PCCC 2004), pp. 857 – 863, 2004, doi: 10. 1109/PCCC. 2004. 1395203
  • Mawlood-Yunis, A. , Nayak, A. , Nussbaum, D. , and Santoro, N. 2004a. Comparing Performance of Two Mobile Agent Platforms in Distributed Search. In: Proceedings of the IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Intelligent Agent Technology (IAT'04), pp. 425 – 428, 20-24 Sept. 2004 doi: 10. 1109/IAT. 2004. 1342987
  • Mawlood-Yunis, A. , Nayak, A. , Nussbaum, D. , and Santoro, N. 2004b. On the Performance of Distributed Search by Mobile Agents. LNCS, 3284:285-294, Springer-Verlag, 2004
  • Su, Y. and Li, X. 2005. Performance analysis of IMAGO system. In: Proceedings of the Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (CCECE 2005), Saskatoon, pp. 1029 - 1032, 1-4 May 2005, doi: 10. 1109/CCECE. 2005. 1557151
  • Raquel, T. , Sergio, I. , and Eduardo, M. 2007. Comparison and Performance Evaluation of Mobile Agent Platforms. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Autonomic and Autonomous Systems(ICAS07), pp. 41-46, pp. 19-25, June 2007, doi:10. 1109/CONIELECOMP. 2007. 66
  • Leszczyna, R. 2008. Evaluation of Agent Platforms Version 2. 0, Joint Research Centre(JRC) Scientific and Technical Reports, Luxemburg,2008.