CFP last date
20 June 2024
Reseach Article

Reversible Watermarking based on Entropy Masking with Histogram Shifting

by Rashpinder Kaur, Jaspreet Singh
International Journal of Computer Applications
Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA
Volume 99 - Number 13
Year of Publication: 2014
Authors: Rashpinder Kaur, Jaspreet Singh

Rashpinder Kaur, Jaspreet Singh . Reversible Watermarking based on Entropy Masking with Histogram Shifting. International Journal of Computer Applications. 99, 13 ( August 2014), 39-43. DOI=10.5120/17437-8269

@article{ 10.5120/17437-8269,
author = { Rashpinder Kaur, Jaspreet Singh },
title = { Reversible Watermarking based on Entropy Masking with Histogram Shifting },
journal = { International Journal of Computer Applications },
issue_date = { August 2014 },
volume = { 99 },
number = { 13 },
month = { August },
year = { 2014 },
issn = { 0975-8887 },
pages = { 39-43 },
numpages = {9},
url = { },
doi = { 10.5120/17437-8269 },
publisher = {Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA},
address = {New York, USA}
%0 Journal Article
%1 2024-02-06T22:28:09.145479+05:30
%A Rashpinder Kaur
%A Jaspreet Singh
%T Reversible Watermarking based on Entropy Masking with Histogram Shifting
%J International Journal of Computer Applications
%@ 0975-8887
%V 99
%N 13
%P 39-43
%D 2014
%I Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA

In this paper an improved method for reversible watermarking is proposed. This scheme is the combination of entropy masking and histogram. One first contribution is entropy masking which has three techniques. From three of them dwt is used for the watermarking. Entropy masking is also a human visual system's characteristic, which rarely has been addressed in visual models. The second contribution is a histogram shifting. This will show the histogram of the different images. In that way the watermark embedded and extractor remain synchronized for message extraction and image reconstruction. In this paper a universal entropy masking model is proposed for watermarking embedding algorithm to keep the balance between watermarks' imperceptibility and also its robustness. Also the results are concluded from the experiments that a suitable domain of entropy calculation will result in optimal watermarking performance. For the implementation of this proposed work, the Matlab software is used under image processing toolbox.

  1. Gouenou Coatrieux, Wei Pan, Nora Cuppens-Boulahia. "Reversible Watermarking Based on Invariant Image Classification and Dynamic Histogram Shifting", IEEE transactions on information forensics and security, vol. 8, no. 1, Jan 2013.
  2. Youngseok Lee and Jongweon Kim. "Histogram Rotation-Based Image Watermarking with Reversibility ," International Journal of Security and Its Applications Vol. 6, No. 2, April, 2012.
  3. Rakesh Ahuja S. S. Bedi Himanshu Agarwal, "A Survey of Digital Watermarking Scheme", MIT International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology, vol. 2, issue 1, pp. 52-59, Jan. 2012.
  4. D. Coltuc, "Improved embedding for prediction-based reversible watermarking," IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Security, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 873–882, Sep. 2011.
  5. W. Pan, G. Coatrieux, N. Cuppens, F. Cuppens, and C. Roux, "An additive and lossless watermarking method based on invariant image approximation and Haar wavelet transform," in Proc. IEEE EMBC Conf. , Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2010, pp. 4740–4743.
  6. H. J. Hwang, H. J. Kim, V. Sachnev, and S. H. Joo, "Reversible watermarking method using optimal histogram pair shifting based on prediction and sorting," KSII, Trans. Internet Inform. Syst. , vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 655–670, Aug. 2010.
  7. L. Luo, Z. Chen, M. Chen, X. Zeng, and Z. Xiong, "Reversible image watermarking using interpolation technique," IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Security, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 187–193, Mar. 2010.
  8. M. A. Akhaee and Bulent Sankur, "Robust Scaling-Based Image Watermarking Using Maximum-Likelihood Decoder With Optimum Strength Factor", IEEE Trans. on multimedia, vol. 11, no. 5, Aug. 2009.
  9. G. Coatrieux, C. Le Guillou, J. -M. Cauvin, and C. Roux, "Reversible watermarking for knowledge digest embedding and reliability control in medical images," IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. , vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 158–165, Mar. 2009.
  10. V. Sachnev, H. J. Kim, J. Nam, S. Suresh, and Y. -Q. Shi, "Reversible watermarking algorithm using sorting and prediction," IEEE Trans. Circuit Syst. Video Technol. , vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 989–999, Jul. 2009.
  11. C. C. Lin, W. L. Tai, and C. C. Chang, "Multilevel reversible data hiding based on histogram modification of difference images," Pattern Recognition. , vol. 41, pp. 3582–3591, 2008.
  12. Ali Al-Haj, "Combined DWT-DCT Digital Image Watermarking," Journal of Computer Science 3 (9): 740-746, 2007 ISSN 1549-3636 © 2007 Science Publications.
  13. D. M. Thodi and J. J. Rodriquez, "Expansion embedding techniques for reversible watermarking," IEEE Trans. Image Process. , vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 721–730, Mar. 2007.
  14. G. Coatrieux, L. Lecornu, B. Sankur, and C. Roux, "A review of image watermarking applications in healthcare," in Proc. IEEE EMBC Conf. , New York, 2006, pp. 4691–4694.
  15. Z. Ni, Y. Q. Shi, N. Ansari, and S. Wei, "Reversible data hiding," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. , vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 354–362, Mar. 2006.
  16. F. Bao, R. H. Deng, B. C. Ooi, andY. Yang, "Tailored reversible watermarking schemes for authentication of electronic clinical atlas," IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. , vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 554–563, Dec. 2005.
  17. G. Xuan, Y. Q. Shi, C. Y . Yang, Y. Z. Zheng, D. K. Zou, and P. Q. Chai, "Lossless data hiding using integer wavelet transform and threshold embedding technique," in Proc. Int. Conf. Multimedia and Expo, 2005, pp. 1520–1523.
  18. L. Kamstra and H. J. A. M. Heijmans, "Reversible data embedding into images using wavelet techniques and sorting," IEEE, Image Process. , vol. 14, no. 12, pp. 2082–2090, Dec. 2005.
  19. J. Tian, "Reversible data embedding using a difference expansion," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. , vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 890–896, Aug. 2003.
  20. H. M. Chao, C. M. Hsu, and S. G. Miaou, "A data-hidding technique with authentication, integration, and confidentiality for electronic patient records," IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. , vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 46–53, Mar. 2002.
  21. J. M. Barton , "Method and Apparatus for Embedding Authentication Information Within Digital Data," U. S. Patent 5 646 997, 1997.
Index Terms

Computer Science
Information Sciences


Digital Watermarking Entropy Entropy Masking Histogram Shifting PSNR (peak signal to noise ratio).