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Analysis of Retaining Walls by Numerical Methods - A Literature Review

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IJCA Proceedings on International Conference in Computational Intelligence (ICCIA2012)
© 2012 by IJCA Journal
iccia - Number 10
Year of Publication: 2012
Authors:
P.N.Patil
U. O. Agrawal
K.A.Patil

P.N.Patil, U O Agrawal and K.A.Patil. Article: Analysis of Retaining Walls by Numerical Methods - A Literature Review. IJCA Proceedings on International Conference in Computational Intelligence (ICCIA 2012) ICCIA(10):-, March 2012. Full text available. BibTeX

@article{key:article,
	author = {P.N.Patil and U. O. Agrawal and K.A.Patil},
	title = {Article: Analysis of Retaining Walls by Numerical Methods - A Literature Review},
	journal = {IJCA Proceedings on International Conference in Computational Intelligence (ICCIA 2012)},
	year = {2012},
	volume = {ICCIA},
	number = {10},
	pages = {-},
	month = {March},
	note = {Full text available}
}

Abstract

Present scenario of the engineering practice is indulged in the search of highly developed methods to judge the earth's retaining walls under seismic conditions which are mostly empirical and based on experience rather than the theories. Understanding the nature of earth retaining structures in unstable events caused by natural phenomena is one of the oldest problems in geotechnical engineering. The destructive effects of earthquakes make the problem more crucial. Despite of the numerous in depth research and vast studies over the years, the dynamic response of earth retaining structures is far from being well understood and controlled. As a result, current engineering practice lacks practically firm information that may be used to improve the designs. The most commonly used methods to design retaining structures under seismic conditions are Force equilibrium based pseudo-static analysis [9], Pseudo dynamic analysis [17], and Displacement based sliding block method. This Paper presents the detailed study of various minute element and numerical models for the retaining structure which are commercially available program and previously used, so as to develop a new simplified model which can help in understanding the dynamic behaviour of retaining structures.

References

  • Alampalli, S., and Elgamel, A. W. (1990). “Dynamic response of retaining walls including supported soil backfill- A computational model” Proc., 4th U.S 8 National Conf. on earthquake Engre, Earthquake Engineering research Institute, Palm Springs, California, vol.3, pp 623-632
  • Al-Homoud, A. S., and Whitman, R.V (1999). “Seismic analysis and design of rigid bridge abutments considering rotation and sliding incorporating non-linear soil behavior” Soil dynamics and earthquake engineering 247-277
  • Choudhury, D., Subba Rao, K. S., and Ghosh, S. (2002). “Passive earth pressure distribution under seismic condition” 15th Engineering Mechanics Conference of ASCE, Columbia University, New York.
  • Choudhury, D., and Nimbalkar, S. (2005). “Seismic passive resistance by pseudo-dynamic method” J. Ge´otechnique 55, No. 9, 699–702.
  • Cai, Z., and Bathurst, R. J. (1995). ‘‘Seismic response analysis of geosynthetic reinforced soil segmental retaining walls by finite element method.’’ Comp. and Geotechnics, 17(4), 523–546.
  • Finn, W. D. L., Yogendrakumar, M., Otsu, H., and Seedman, R. S., (1989). “ Seismic response of a cantilever retaining wall: Centrifuge model test and dynamic analysis” Proc., 4th Int. Conf. on Soil Dyn. and earthquake Engrg., Computational Mechanics Inc., Southampton, 331-431.
  • Green, R.A. and Ebeling, R.M. (2003). “Modeling the dynamic response of cantilever earth-retaining walls using FLAC” Numerical modeling in geomechanics.
  • Ha T.V. Pham and Delwyn G. Fredlund,(2003) The application of dynamic programming to slope stability analysis, Can. Geotech. J. Vol. 40
  • Mononobe, N., and Matuo, H, (1929). “On the determination of earth pressures during earthquakes” Proc. World Engrg, Congr., Tokyo, Japan, vol.9, paper no.388.
  • M. Maugeri, E. Motta, and E. Raciti, (2006), Mathematical modelling of the landslide occurred at Gagliano Castelferrato, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 6, 133–143.
  • Mingwei Guo , Xiurun Ge and Shuilin Wang,(2011) Slope stability analysis under seismic load by vector sum analysis Method, Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. 2011, 3 (3): 282–288.
  • Okabe, S, (1924). “General theory of earth pressure and seismic stability of retaining wall and dam” J.Japan Soc. Civ Engrs, Tokyo, Japan, 12(1).
  • Psarropoulos, P.N., Klonaris.G., and Gazetas.G. (2005), “Seismic earth pressures on rigid and flexible retaining walls” J.Soil dynamics and earthquake engineering vol.25, 795-809.
  • Rajeev Pathmanathan, (2006), numerical modelling of seismic behaviour of earth-retaining walls, a dissertation thesis.
  • Sam m. B. Helwany, M. Budhu, and David McAllen (2001), seismic analysis of segmental retaining walls, journal of geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering, vol. 127, no. 9
  • Seed, H.B., and Whitman, R.V., (1970) “Design of earth retaining structures for dynamic loads”, ASCE Spec.Conf. Lateral Stresses in the ground and design of retaining structures, Cornell, pp 103-147.
  • Steedman, R.S., and Zeng, X., (1990) “The influence of phase on the calculation of pseudo-static earth pressure on a retaining wall” Geotechnique, 40 (1), 103-112.
  • Sudhir K. Jain and Ronald F. Scott, Se
  • Alampalli, S., and Elgamel, A. W. (1990). “Dynamic response of retaining walls including supported soil backfill- A computational model” Proc., 4th U.S 8 National Conf. on earthquake Engre, Earthquake Engineering research Institute, Palm Springs, California, vol.3, pp 623-632
  • Al-Homoud, A. S., and Whitman, R.V (1999). “Seismic analysis and design of rigid bridge abutments considering rotation and sliding incorporating non-linear soil behavior” Soil dynamics and earthquake engineering 247-277
  • Choudhury, D., Subba Rao, K. S., and Ghosh, S. (2002). “Passive earth pressure distribution under seismic condition” 15th Engineering Mechanics Conference of ASCE, Columbia University, New York.
  • Choudhury, D., and Nimbalkar, S. (2005). “Seismic passive resistance by pseudo-dynamic method” J. Ge´otechnique 55, No. 9, 699–702.
  • Cai, Z., and Bathurst, R. J. (1995). ‘‘Seismic response analysis of geosynthetic reinforced soil segmental retaining walls by finite element method.’’ Comp. and Geotechnics, 17(4), 523–546.
  • Finn, W. D. L., Yogendrakumar, M., Otsu, H., and Seedman, R. S., (1989). “ Seismic response of a cantilever retaining wall: Centrifuge model test and dynamic analysis” Proc., 4th Int. Conf. on Soil Dyn. and earthquake Engrg., Computational Mechanics Inc., Southampton, 331-431.
  • Green, R.A. and Ebeling, R.M. (2003). “Modeling the dynamic response of cantilever earth-retaining walls using FLAC” Numerical modeling in geomechanics.
  • Ha T.V. Pham and Delwyn G. Fredlund,(2003) The application of dynamic programming to slope stability analysis, Can. Geotech. J. Vol. 40
  • Mononobe, N., and Matuo, H, (1929). “On the determination of earth pressures during earthquakes” Proc. World Engrg, Congr., Tokyo, Japan, vol.9, paper no.388.
  • M. Maugeri, E. Motta, and E. Raciti, (2006), Mathematical modelling of the landslide occurred at Gagliano Castelferrato, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 6, 133–143.
  • Mingwei Guo , Xiurun Ge and Shuilin Wang,(2011) Slope stability analysis under seismic load by vector sum analysis Method, Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. 2011, 3 (3): 282–288.
  • Okabe, S, (1924). “General theory of earth pressure and seismic stability of retaining wall and dam” J.Japan Soc. Civ Engrs, Tokyo, Japan, 12(1).
  • Psarropoulos, P.N., Klonaris.G., and Gazetas.G. (2005), “Seismic earth pressures on rigid and flexible retaining walls” J.Soil dynamics and earthquake engineering vol.25, 795-809.
  • Rajeev Pathmanathan, (2006), numerical modelling of seismic behaviour of earth-retaining walls, a dissertation thesis.
  • Sam m. B. Helwany, M. Budhu, and David McAllen (2001), seismic analysis of segmental retaining walls, journal of geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering, vol. 127, no. 9
  • Seed, H.B., and Whitman, R.V., (1970) “Design of earth retaining structures for dynamic loads”, ASCE Spec.Conf. Lateral Stresses in the ground and design of retaining structures, Cornell, pp 103-147.
  • Steedman, R.S., and Zeng, X., (1990) “The influence of phase on the calculation of pseudo-static earth pressure on a retaining wall” Geotechnique, 40 (1), 103-112.
  • Sudhir K. Jain and Ronald F. Scott, Seismic analysis of Cantilever Retaining walls.ismic analysis of Cantilever Retaining walls.