CFP last date
22 July 2024
Reseach Article

A Roadmap for the Adoption of Government E-payments in Kenya

by Bonface I. Asiligwa, Elijah I. Omwenga
International Journal of Computer Applications
Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA
Volume 144 - Number 1
Year of Publication: 2016
Authors: Bonface I. Asiligwa, Elijah I. Omwenga

Bonface I. Asiligwa, Elijah I. Omwenga . A Roadmap for the Adoption of Government E-payments in Kenya. International Journal of Computer Applications. 144, 1 ( Jun 2016), 8-18. DOI=10.5120/ijca2016910062

@article{ 10.5120/ijca2016910062,
author = { Bonface I. Asiligwa, Elijah I. Omwenga },
title = { A Roadmap for the Adoption of Government E-payments in Kenya },
journal = { International Journal of Computer Applications },
issue_date = { Jun 2016 },
volume = { 144 },
number = { 1 },
month = { Jun },
year = { 2016 },
issn = { 0975-8887 },
pages = { 8-18 },
numpages = {9},
url = { },
doi = { 10.5120/ijca2016910062 },
publisher = {Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA},
address = {New York, USA}
%0 Journal Article
%1 2024-02-06T23:46:37.535510+05:30
%A Bonface I. Asiligwa
%A Elijah I. Omwenga
%T A Roadmap for the Adoption of Government E-payments in Kenya
%J International Journal of Computer Applications
%@ 0975-8887
%V 144
%N 1
%P 8-18
%D 2016
%I Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA

Analogous to the Motorists roadmap that shows the roads, directions and distances to a destination of a given region [1]. A roadmap in this context is a detailed guideline that answers the “why-what-how" questions and lay out the required actions, the "to-do's." towards adoption of e-payments in the government of Kenya. For Over a decade, the government of Kenya grappled with the idea of implementing a national payment gateway through which all payments for government services, levies, duties, and fines were to be electronically made. For a long period industry players and policy makers in government had unsuccessfully developed varied strategies of achieving a cashless government payment system. These efforts have failed to yield due to lack of a comprehensive roadmap that addressed pertinent issues that had to be dealt with for e-payments in government to be fully adopted. This research was done by conducting a survey study on the government of Kenya on the adoption of e-payments. A random sample of the research population was drawn from ICT and Finance employees of 262 state corporations, 19 Ministries, and 47 counties to which a questionnaire was administered to gain an understanding and information on why there had been low uptake of e-payments in the government of Kenya. The data collected was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively using descriptive statistical techniques. The results from this analysis have been used to propose a roadmap for the adoption of e-payments in the government of Kenya and any other similar setting.

  1. David Smith (2005) "Strategic Roadmap" Technology Futures Inc. Texas USA. Available Online at
  2. Izhar, Ailya; Khan, Aihab; Khiyal, Malik Sikandar Hayat; Javed, Wajeeh; Baig, Shiraz. (2011) “Designing and Implementation of Electronic payment Gateway for Developing countries” Journal of Theoretical & Applied Information Technology. 2011, Vol. 26 Issue 2, p84-90. 7p vol. 26
  3. Upendra Nambur (2011) Electronic Payments in India Looking Back & Surging Forward: Available at:
  4. Wondwossen T., Tsegaye G., Solomon A. and Dawit B. (2006). E-Payment in Ethiopia: Challenges and Opportunities” Forum on ICTs, Trade and Economic Growth. March 14 – 16, 2006
  5. Karamjeet Kaur1 and Ashutosh Pathak, (2015). E-Payment System on E-Commerce in India. Available at:
  6. Haruna, I. (2012). Challenges of Electronic Payment Systems in Ghana: The Case of e-ZWICH. American Journal of Business and Management, 1(3), 87-95
  7. National Council for Law Reporting (2011), National Payment systems act. Available at www.kenyalaw.orgInter- American Center of Tax administrations 48th general assembly
  8. Legris, Paul, Collerette and Pierre: A Roadmap for IT Project Implementation – Integrating Stakeholders and Change Management Issues; in: Project Management Journal, Vol. 27 (2006), No. 5, pp. 64-75
  9. Kumar V, Mukherjee B, Butt I & Persuade A (2007) “Factors for Successful E-Government Adoption: a Conceptual Framework” The Electronic Journal of e-Government Vol. 5, No, 1, pp 63 -76, available online at
  10. Otieno I. and Omwenga E. (2014). Towards the Development of a Citizen-Centric Framework for Evaluating the Impact of e-Government: A Case Study of Developing Countries
  11. Abdoulmohammad G. Chofreh, Feybi A. Goni, Awaluddin M. Shaharoun and Syuhaida Ismail (2015) “A Review on Sustainability Transformation: Roadmaps using Project Management Methodology” . Available at
  12. Lee Badger, Robert Bohn, Shilong Chu and Mike Hogan (2011) “US Government Cloud Computing Technology Roadmap” Volume II Release 1.0 Useful Information for Cloud Adopters. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
  13. Davis, F. (1993) User acceptance of information technology: System characteristics, user perceptions and behavior impacts. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies,
  14. Carmines, E. G. and Zeller, R. A. (1979). Reliability and validity assessment. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
  15. David Miller and Mike Oliver (2015) “Engaging stakeholders for project success” Available at:
  16. Rashmi P. Anita and Naresh C (2013) “A mapping model for transforming traditional software development methods to agile methodology”. International Journal of Software Engineering & Applications (IJSEA), Vol.4, No.4, July 2013
  17. International Energy Agency (IEA) (2014) “Energy Technology Roadmaps” A guide to development and implementation. Available at : to development and implementation.pdf
  18. Hart O. and Ojiabo U. (2012) "Integrating TAM and TOE Frameworks and Expanding their Characteristic Constructs for E-Commerce Adoption by SMEs”. Proceedings of Informing Science and IT Education Conference (InSITE).
  19. Muhammad Sajjad, Asad Afzal Humayoun and Ziaullah Khan (2010),”Risk perception And adoption of technology”: An empirical study of personal computer use for Pakistani managers. “African Journal of Business Management Vol. 4(14), pp. 3080-3086, 18 October, 2010 available online at: http://www. Academic”
  20. Choudrie J. and Dwivedi Y.K. (2005), The Demographics of Broadband Residential Consumers of a British Local Community: The London Borough of Hillingdon, Journal of Computer Information Systems, Vol. 45, NO. 4, pp. 93 101
  21. Dillman Don. (2000). Mail and Internet Surveys: The Tailored Design Method. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  22. Mugenda O. and Mugenda, A. (2003) Research Methods. Acts Press, Nairobi
  23. Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrical. 16, 297-334
  24. Mumford and Henshall, (1979) The rise and decline of the ETHICS methodology of systems implementation: lessons for IS research. Journal of Information Technology
  25. Jackson, S.L. (2009). Research Methods and Statistics: A Critical Thinking Approach 3rd edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
  26. Yamane, Taro. (1967). Statistics: An Introductory Analysis, 2nd Ed., New York
  27. Harper Row Israel, and Glenn D. (2013)." Determining Sample Size”. Program Evaluation and Organizational Development, IFAS, University of Florida. PEOD-5. Available at
  28. Robert, K. (1984) "Case Study Research Design and Methods" Sage Publications –International Education and professional publisher London. Available online at
  29. Porter and Stephen R. (2004). “Pros and Cons of Paper and Electronic Surveys.” New Directions in Institutional Research, no. 121:91-97.
  30. Cochran, W. G. (1963). Sampling Techniques, 2nd Ed., New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
  31. USAID (2013) “Making the Journey from Cash to Electronic Payments” USAID Implementing Partners and Craft Silicon, (2013). Payment Gateway Integration Specifications and Guide Integration of Business Systems and Bank with Payment Gateway, June 20, 2013 Version 2.3, Kenya Revenue Authority Document.
  32. Economist Intelligent Unit (EIU) (2014) Government E-payments Adoption Ranking (GEAR). Available at :
  33. Jamain N. Zimmerman (2014) “Electronic G2P Payments: Evidence from Four Lower-Income Countries” Available at : electronic-g2p-payments-evidence-four-lower-income-countries
  34. ICTMP (2014). The Kenya National ICT Master Plan – 2013 – 2018
  35. CIAT (2014). The use of Information and Communication Technologies in the tax Administration: Prepaid phone credits as a means of payment. Kenya Revenue Authority.
  36. Pattarin, M. (2009) Implementation of Effective Change Management for Successful Integration of Health Information Technology (HIT) Systems in Hospitals.
  37. R. Phaal and G. Muller (2009), "An architectural framework for road Mapping: Towards visual Strategy," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, vol. 76, pp. 39-49, 2009
  38. Oliveira. And Martins, M, F. (2011).“Literature Review of Information Technology Adoption Models at Firm Level” The Electronic Journal Information Systems Evaluation Volume 14 Issue 1 2011, (pp110-121), available online at
  39. Csaba, C., O'Brien, Giller, J.B., McCarthy, Adam, F., (2013). "The use of E-Payment in the Distribution of social welfare in Ireland: Charting the daily experience of recipients”, Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, Vol. 7 Iss: 1, pp.6 – 26
  40. World Bank. (2013) “Electronic Payments with Limited Infrastructure Uganda’s Search for a Viable E-payments Solution for the Social Assistance Grants for Empowerment” Washington, DC USA. Available online at http://
  41. World Bank (2012) “General guidelines for the development of government payment Programs” Washington DC USA accessed 9th July 2015 Available at. http://:
  42. Beatriz Marulanda and Mariana Paredes (2015) "Columbia’s Online E-payment Platform: Private Sector Innovation Inspired by Governments Vision". Better than Cash (BTCA) Case study. Available at
  43. Hsin−Lu C. and Michael J S. (2005) “A Roadmap to Adopting Emerging Technology in E−Business − An Empirical Study”. Available at: http://www. Working_Papers/papers/05−0125.pdf
  44. Cohen J. West P.S.G. and Aiken, L. S. (2003).Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences.
  45. C. Patrick Doncasterand and Rew J. H. Dave (2009). Analysis of Variance and Covariance: How to Choose and Construct Models for the Life Sciences
  46. Christine Mbulwa (2014) E-government services delivery in Kenya. Available at: https://su plus. Strathmore .edu/.../Framework
  47. Tornatzky, L. and Fleischer, M. (1990).The process of technology innovation. Lexington, M.A: Lexington Books.
  48. Accountability (2008) AA1000 Stakeholder Engagement Standard 2011. Available at: http://www.accountability. org/standards/aa1000ses.html
  49. Warkentin, M., Gefen, D., Pavlou, P. and Rose, G. (2002). Encouraging Citizen Adoption of e-Government by Building Trust, Electronic Markets, Volume. 12:3
Index Terms

Computer Science
Information Sciences


Adoption Roadmap Change management e-Payments e-government Adoption Stakeholder engagement information security