Call for Paper - November 2022 Edition
IJCA solicits original research papers for the November 2022 Edition. Last date of manuscript submission is October 20, 2022. Read More

A Hybrid Watermarking Scheme for Increasing Watermark Capacity and Security

International Journal of Computer Applications
Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA
Year of Publication: 2020
R. A. El-Sheikh, F. Khalifa, M. A. Mohammed

R A El-Sheikh, F Khalifa and M A Mohammed. A Hybrid Watermarking Scheme for Increasing Watermark Capacity and Security. International Journal of Computer Applications 177(35):35-47, February 2020. BibTeX

	author = {R. A. El-Sheikh and F. Khalifa and M. A. Mohammed},
	title = {A Hybrid Watermarking Scheme for Increasing Watermark Capacity and Security},
	journal = {International Journal of Computer Applications},
	issue_date = {February 2020},
	volume = {177},
	number = {35},
	month = {Feb},
	year = {2020},
	issn = {0975-8887},
	pages = {35-47},
	numpages = {13},
	url = {},
	doi = {10.5120/ijca2020919861},
	publisher = {Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA},
	address = {New York, USA}


Imperceptible and robust watermarking schemes have been vastly used recently as powerful tools to guard the copyright protection, rightful ownership, and content authentication. This paper introduces a secure hybrid digital image watermarking algorithm based on bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition (BEMD); redundant discrete wavelet transform (RDWT); discrete cosine transform (DCT) and singular value decomposition (SVD). A watermark is scrambled by Arnold transform to boost up its secrecy and robustness. The main purpose of this scheme is to increase the embedding watermark capacity and encryption while keeping it robust against different types of attacks. The number of changing pixel rate (NPCR) and the unified averaged changed intensity (UACI) are two most common quantities used to estimate the strength of watermark image encryption algorithms/ciphers with reference to differential attacks. A high NPCR/UACI score is usually explicated as a high resistance to differential attacks, as well as higher PSNR evaluation metrics. Experimental using PSNR, WDR, MSE, NC and BCR metrics on different host images (Lena, Barbara, and Boat) and the cameraman as the watermark image show that the presented scheme is rich in terms of imperceptibility, capacity, security and robustness. This has been also highlighted by comparing its performance against other state-of-the-art schemes.


  1. A. M. El-Assy, M. A. Mohamed, M. E. A. Abou-El- Seoud, "Improved BEMD-DWT-DCT-SVD Robust Watermarking Technique for Still Images", International Journal of Computer Applications, Vol.150, No.9, pp 13- 20, 2016.
  2. Q. Zheng, N. Yen, C. C. Tung, H. H. Liu, "The empirical mode decomposition and the Hilbert spectrum for nonlinear and non-stationary time series analysis", The Royal Society, 1996
  3. L. Gahalod, "A Review on Digital Image Watermarking using 3-Level Discrete Wavelet Transform", IJSRSET, 4099 Themed Section: Engineering and Technology, Vol. 4, Issue 1, Print ISSN: 2395-1990, Online ISSN : 2394-9301, pp 930-936, 2018.
  4. M. Rahman, "A DWT, DCT and SVD Based Watermarking Technique to Protect the Image Piracy", International Journal of Managing Public Sector Information and Communication Technologies, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp 21-32, 2013.
  5. M. I. Khan, M. Rahman, I. H. Sarker, "Digital Watermarking for Image Authentication Based on Combined DCT, DWT and SVD Transformation", Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology, Chittagong-4349.
  6. N. Chaturvedi, Dr. S. J. Basha, "Comparison of Digital Image watermarking Methods DWT & DWT-DCT on the Basis of PSNR", International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 1, Issue 2, pp 147-153, 2012.
  7. S. Gaur, V. K. Srivastava, "A RDWT and Block-SVD based Dual Watermarking Scheme for Digital Images", International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp 2011-2019, 2017.
  8. S. Lagzian, M. Soryani, M. Fathy, "A New Robust Watermarking Scheme Based on RDWT-SVD", International Journal of Intelligent Information Processing, Vol. 2, No. 1, no1-33, 2011.
  9. S. A. Biad, T. Bouden, M. Nibouche, E. Elbasi, "A Bi- Dimensional Empirical Mode Decomposition Based Watermarking Scheme", The International Arab Journal of Information Technology, Vol. 12, No.1, pp 24-31, 2015.
  10. S. Gaur, V. K. Srivastava, "A Hybrid RDWT-DCT and SVD Based Digital Image Watermarking Scheme Using Arnold Transform", 4th International Conference on Signal Processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN), pp 399-404, 2017.
  11. F. Wu, J. Li, "The Text Image Watermarking Using Arnold Scrambling and DFT", Computer Modeling & New Technologies, 18(11) 477-481, 2014.
  12. I. M. G. Alwan, E. M. Jamel, "Digital Image Watermarking Using Arnold Scrambling and Berkeley Wavelet Transform", Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, Vol. 12, No 2, pp 124-133, 2016.
  13. X. Zhou, J. Ma, W. Du, "SoW: A hybrid DWT-SVD based Secured Image Watermarking", International Conference on Sensor Network Security Technology and Privacy Communication System (SNS & PCS), pp 197- 200, 2013.
  14. Y. Mao, G. Chen, S. Lian, "A Novel Fast Image Encryption Scheme Based on 3D Chaotic Baker Maps", International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos, Vol. 14, No. 10, pp 3613-3624, 2003.
  15. Y. Wu, J. Noonan, S. Agaian, "NPCR and UACI Randomness Tests for Image Encryption", Cyber Journals: Multidisciplinary Journals in Science and Technology, Journal of Selected Areas in Telecommunications (JSAT), pp 31-38, 2011.


Robust watermarking, BEMD, NPCR, UACI, Redundant Discrete wavelet transform (RDWT).