CFP last date
20 June 2024
Reseach Article

Technical and Economic Analysis of Scrubbers

by Thrasivoulos Bakatselos, Nikitas Nikitakos, Dimitrios Papachristos
International Journal of Computer Applications
Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA
Volume 178 - Number 24
Year of Publication: 2019
Authors: Thrasivoulos Bakatselos, Nikitas Nikitakos, Dimitrios Papachristos
10.5120/ijca2019919036

Thrasivoulos Bakatselos, Nikitas Nikitakos, Dimitrios Papachristos . Technical and Economic Analysis of Scrubbers. International Journal of Computer Applications. 178, 24 ( Jun 2019), 15-21. DOI=10.5120/ijca2019919036

@article{ 10.5120/ijca2019919036,
author = { Thrasivoulos Bakatselos, Nikitas Nikitakos, Dimitrios Papachristos },
title = { Technical and Economic Analysis of Scrubbers },
journal = { International Journal of Computer Applications },
issue_date = { Jun 2019 },
volume = { 178 },
number = { 24 },
month = { Jun },
year = { 2019 },
issn = { 0975-8887 },
pages = { 15-21 },
numpages = {9},
url = { https://ijcaonline.org/archives/volume178/number24/30681-2019919036/ },
doi = { 10.5120/ijca2019919036 },
publisher = {Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA},
address = {New York, USA}
}
%0 Journal Article
%1 2024-02-07T00:51:18.191702+05:30
%A Thrasivoulos Bakatselos
%A Nikitas Nikitakos
%A Dimitrios Papachristos
%T Technical and Economic Analysis of Scrubbers
%J International Journal of Computer Applications
%@ 0975-8887
%V 178
%N 24
%P 15-21
%D 2019
%I Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA
Abstract

The newly-introduced environmental regulations regarding the fuels’ content in sulphur inside ECA zones, creates a new reality for shipping companies. In order to face this reality, the ship-owners have to choose between consuming distillate fuels or conventional fuels along with the installation of a scrubber. This multifarious problem requires the presentation of the two available means of conformity, so the reader can fully comprehend the difficulties of the issue. In the meanwhile, the majority of the published available bibliography was reviewed, regarding the environmental and economic assessment. Moving forward, a sophisticated ultra-large containership, which trades in the busiest ports of Europe and Asia, was used for assessing the economics of scrubber installation. Four possible scenarios are examined concerning the exposure time in ECA zone and different operating profiles.

References
  1. Fernandez Soto,J.L., Garay Seijo, R., Fraguela Formoso, J.A., Gregorio Iglesias, G.,& Carral Couce, L. (2010). Alternative Sources of Energy in Shipping. THEJOURNAL OF NAVIGATION, 63, 435-448
  2. Vogler F.& Sattler G. (2016). Compendium of Hydrogen Energy; Volume 4:
  3. Hydrogen Use, Safety and the Hydrogen Economy, Woodhead Publishing, 35-66
  4. Dalaklis D, Olcher A., Balini F.& Dewitz L. J. (2016). Protecting the Arctic
  5. Environment: Challenges and Opportunities for Liquefied Natural Gas. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309264253_Protecting_the_Arctic
  6. _Environment_Challenges_and_Opportunities_for_Liquefied_Natural_Gas
  7. Schinas O. & Butler M.. (2016). Feasibility and commercial consideration of LNGfueled ships, Ocean Engineering, 112, 84-96
  8. Edwards, D.T. & Rymarz, E. (1990), International Regulations for the Prevention and Control of Pollution by Debris From Ships, In R. S. Shomura and M. L. Godfrey (editors), Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris, 2-7 April 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii. U.S. Dep. Comer., NOM Tech. Memo. NMFS, NOM-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-154, pp 956 – 988.
  9. I.P.I.E.C.A., (2007), Maritime air emissions and MARPOL Annex VI, Strategies and consequences, International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (I.P.I.E.C.A.),
  10. Icopal-Noxite. (n.d.). Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Pollution. Icopal-Noxite. Retrieved from http://www.icopal-noxite.co.uk/nox-problem/nox-pollution.aspx
  11. USEPA. (n.d.). Sulphur Dioxide Basics. Unite State Environmental Protection
  12. Agency. Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/so2-pollution/sulphur-dioxidebasics# Effects
  13. Motorship. (2015). Meeting the EEDI challenge. Motorship. Retrieved from
  14. http://www.motorship.com/news101/engines-and-propulsion/eedi-andpropulsion-power
  15. ABS (2013), Exhaust Gas Scrubber Systems: Status and Guidance, Available at:http://ww2.eagle.org/content/dam/eagle/publications/2013/Scrubber_Advisory.pdf
  16. EU (2012), Directive 2012/33/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 November 2012, Available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal
  17. Reynolds K. (2011), Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems Selection Guide, Prepared for Ship Operations Cooperative Program (SOCP), Available at: http://www.procal.com/docs/Exhaust_Gas_Cleaning_Systems_Guide.pdf
  18. Allwright Gavin. (2017). Commercial Wind Propulsion Solutions: Putting the “Sail”Back into Sailing, MARINER217 Conference
  19. Jose J.D., Carlos A., Carlos F.G., & Luis C. (2016). Analysing the possibilities of using fuel cells in ships. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 2853-2866
  20. DeMates Lauren. (2016). What are the differences between Biofuels, Bioethanol,Biodiesel and Biogas?. The Sustainability Co-Op. Retrieved from
  21. https://thesustainabilitycooperative.net/2013/12/26/the-difference-between56
  22. biofuel-bioethanol-biodiesel-and-biogas/
  23. Kronemeijer Dirk. (2016). Bring on the Biofuels. Shipping & Marine. Retrieved from
  24. http://www.shipping-and-marine.com/2016/05/11/bring-on-the-biofuels/
  25. Xu Jingjing, Testa David & Mukherjee roshanto Kinter. (2015). The Use of LNG as a Marine Fuel: The International Regulatory Framework, Ocean Deveopment & International Law, 43:3, 225-240
  26. EIA (U.S. Energy Information Administration). (2013). Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources: An Assessment of 137 Shale Formations in 41 countries Outside of United States. 2
  27. ‘EU launches clean fuel strategy’. (2013). European Commission. Retrieved from http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-40_en.htm
  28. WPCI. (2016). World Ports Climate Initiative. Retrieved from
  29. http://www.lngbunkering.org/lng/map/node
  30. DNV (2014), Sulfur Limits 2015 – Guidelines to ensure compliance, Available at: https://www.dnvgl.com/maritime/low-sulphur-operation.html
  31. CONCAWE (2009), Impact of marine fuels quality legislation on EU refineries at the 2020 horizon , Available at: https://www.concawe.eu/uploads/Modules/Publications/rpt_09-3-2009-01906-01-e-2.pdf
  32. Kristensen, H.O. (2012), Energy Demand and Exhaust Gas Emissions of Marine Engines, Technical University of Denmark, Project no. 2010-56,
  33. Emissionsbeslutningsstøttesystem, Work Package 2, Report No. 05, September.
  34. EGCSA Handbook 2012 A practical guide to exhaust gas cleaning systems for the maritime industry
  35. Dan Rutherford, Azzara Alyson, Haifeng Wang, 2014
  36. Feasibility of IMO Annex VI Tier III implementation using Selective Catalytic Reduction,
  37. Køcks, M. et al., 2012. Shipboard characterization of a wet scrubber
  38. system:Influence on particle number concentration, particle size distribution
  39. and chemical composition.
  40. Hassellöv, I.-M., Turner, D. R., Lauer, A. & Corbett, J. J., (2013), Shipping
  41. contributes to ocean acidification, Geophysical Research Letters, Volume 40, pp. 2731-2736, Available online at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/grl.50521/pdf
  42. Buhaug, Halvard and Jan Ketil Rød. 2006. Local determinants of African civil wars, 1970–2001. Political Geography 25(3): 315–335.
  43. UBA, 2014. Auswirkungen von Abgasnachbehandlungsanlagen (Scrubbern) aufdie Umweltsituation in Häfen und Küstengewässern, TEXTE 83/2014,, Bremen: Umweltbundesamt (UBA).
  44. Ma, H., Steernberg, K., Riera-Palou, X. & Tait, N., 2012. Well-to-wake energy
  45. and greenhouse gas analysis of SOX abatement options for the marine industry.
  46. Transportation Research, 17(Part D), pp. 301-308.
  47. "ABS Record: OOCL Hong Kong". Retrieved 2017-06-07.
  48. "OOCL reaches milestone with the christening of the OOCL Hong Kong". OOCL. 12 May 2017. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  49. Klimt‐Møllenbach, C., Schack, C., Eefsen, T., & Kat, J. D. (2012). ECA Retrofit Technology. Green Ship of theFuture. Retrieved from
  50. http://www.greenship.org/fpublic/greenship/dokumenter/Downloads%20‐
  51. %20maga/ECA%20study/GSF%20ECA%20Technical%20report.pdf
  52. Wahlström, J., Karvosenoja, N., & Porvari, P. (2006). Ship emissions and technical emission reduction potential in the Northern Baltic Sea. Helsinki: Finnish Environment Institute.
Index Terms

Computer Science
Information Sciences

Keywords

Scrubber ECA Exhaust gas emission Low sulphur fuel oil Exhaust gas cleaning system