Call for Paper - January 2024 Edition
IJCA solicits original research papers for the January 2024 Edition. Last date of manuscript submission is December 20, 2023. Read More

Formal Specification Method for Gaia Methodology

International Journal of Computer Applications
Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA
Year of Publication: 2021
Laith Obidat

Laith Obidat. Formal Specification Method for Gaia Methodology. International Journal of Computer Applications 183(6):36-41, June 2021. BibTeX

	author = {Laith Obidat},
	title = {Formal Specification Method for Gaia Methodology},
	journal = {International Journal of Computer Applications},
	issue_date = {June 2021},
	volume = {183},
	number = {6},
	month = {Jun},
	year = {2021},
	issn = {0975-8887},
	pages = {36-41},
	numpages = {6},
	url = {},
	doi = {10.5120/ijca2021921350},
	publisher = {Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA},
	address = {New York, USA}


the software development life cycle process is in continuity and expansion. So that may occur and leads to complex software systems which need to have technologies to realize and understand of large-scale and complex software systems. One of these methods helps to achieve this goal which called agent technology that is compatible and deals with complex software systems characterized by a high degree of distribution. So, a collection of software agents collaborates or competes with each other to achieve single or collective task led to multi-agent. In other hands, the correctness of specifications in the first phase of software development life cycle it is the main factor that led to successful project. The problem is that the specifications are written by informal method may occur misunderstanding and ambiguity. In this research, I will give a solution by doing formal specifications method for GAIA methodology which is one of the methods used in multi-agent systems. This step will enhance the specification based-on Object Constraints Language (OCL).


  1. Srivastava, Praveen Ranjan, et al. "Extension of Object-Oriented Software Testing Techniques to Agent Oriented Software Testing." Journal of Object Technology 7.8 (2008): 155-163.‏
  2. DeLoach, Scott A. Multiagent systems engineering: a methodology and language for designing agent systems. Air force inst of tech wright-pattersonafb oh dept of electrical and computer engineering, 1999.‏
  3. Tveit, Amund. "A survey of agent-oriented software engineering." NTNU Computer Science Graduate Student Conference, Norwegian University of Science and technology. 2001.‏
  4. Genza, N., and E. Mighele. "Review on multi-agent oriented software engineering implementation." International Journal of Computer and Information Technology 2.03 (2013): 511-520.‏
  5. Dastani, Mehdi, and Jorge J. Gomez-Sanz. "Programming multi-agent systems." The Knowledge Engineering Review 20.02 (2005): 151-164.‏
  6. Tan, Ming. "Multi-agent reinforcement learning: Independent vs. cooperative agents." Proceedings of the tenth international conference on machine learning. 1993.‏
  7. Wooldridgey, Michael, and Paolo Ciancarini. "Agent-oriented software engineering: The state of the art." Agent-oriented software engineering. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2001.‏
  8. Akhtar, Nadeem. "Requirements, Formal Verification and Model transformations of an Agent-based System: A CASE STUDY." arXiv preprint arXiv:1501.05120 (2015).‏
  9. Steiner, Renee, Gary Leask, and Rym Z. Mili. "An architecture for MAS simulation environments." Environments for Multi-Agent Systems II. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2005. 50-67.‏
  10. Panait, Liviu, and Sean Luke. "Cooperative multi-agent learning: The state of the art." Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems 11.3 (2005): 387-434.‏
  11. Wooldridge, Michael, Nicholas R. Jennings, and David Kinny. "The Gaia methodology for agent-oriented analysis and design." Autonomous Agents and multi-agent systems 3.3 (2000): 285-312.‏
  12. Cernuzzi, Luca, et al. "The gaia methodology." Methodologies and Software Engineering for Agent Systems. Springer US, 2004. 69-88.‏
  13. Iglesias, Carlos A., Mercedes Garijo, and José C. González. "A survey of agent-oriented methodologies." Intelligent Agents V: Agents Theories, Architectures, and Languages. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 1998. 317-330.‏
  14. Warmer, Jos B., and Anneke G. Kleppe. "The Object Constraint Language: Precise Modeling WithUml (Addison-Wesley Object Technology Series)." (1998).‏
  15. Warmer, Jos B., and Anneke G. Kleppe. The object constraint language: getting your models ready for MDA. Addison-Wesley Professional, 2003.‏
  16. Duarte, R., J. Junior, and A. Mota. "Precise modeling with UML: why OCL?." submitted to the Workshop of Formal Methods. 2003.‏
  17. Akhtar, Nadeem. "Requirements, Formal Verification and Model transformations of an Agent-based System: A CASE STUDY." arXiv preprint arXiv:1501.05120 (2015).‏
  18. Cabot, Jordi, Robert Clarisó, and Daniel Riera. "On the verification of UML/OCL class diagrams using constraint programming." Journal of Systems and Software 93 (2014): 1-23.‏
  19. Gogolla, Martin, Fabian Büttner, and Mark Richters. "USE: A UML-based specification environment for validating UML and OCL." Science of Computer Programming 69.1 (2007): 27-34.‏
  20. Brucker, Achim D., and Burkhart Wolff. "HOL-OCL: a formal proof environment for UML/OCL." Fundamental Approaches to Software Engineering. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2008. 97-100.‏
  21. Berardi, Daniela, Diego Calvanese, and Giuseppe De Giacomo. "Reasoning on UML class diagrams." Artificial Intelligence 168.1 (2005): 70-118.‏
  22. Cabot, Jordi, Robert Clarisó, and Daniel Riera. "Verifying UML/OCL operation contracts." Integrated Formal Methods. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2009.‏


Agent-Oriented Methodology, Multi-Agent System, GAIA Multi-Agent Method, Formal Method, Formal Specification