Call for Paper - May 2023 Edition
IJCA solicits original research papers for the May 2023 Edition. Last date of manuscript submission is April 20, 2023. Read More

Digital Image Watermarking using Fuzzy Logic approach based on DWT and SVD

International Journal of Computer Applications
© 2013 by IJCA Journal
Volume 74 - Number 13
Year of Publication: 2013
T. Sridevi
S Sameena Fathima

T Sridevi and Sameena S Fathima. Article: Digital Image Watermarking using Fuzzy Logic approach based on DWT and SVD. International Journal of Computer Applications 74(13):16-20, July 2013. Full text available. BibTeX

	author = {T. Sridevi and S Sameena Fathima},
	title = {Article: Digital Image Watermarking using Fuzzy Logic approach based on DWT and SVD},
	journal = {International Journal of Computer Applications},
	year = {2013},
	volume = {74},
	number = {13},
	pages = {16-20},
	month = {July},
	note = {Full text available}


Digital image watermarking is implemented using fuzzy logic approach based on transform domain. Fuzzy logic is an approach based on "degrees of truth" rather than usual "true or false" i. e. , Boolean logic. In this paper, we use a reference image instead of original image. To get a reference image Directive contrast and Threshold value are calculated for middle and high frequency bands. A transform domain with the help of fuzzy logic system is used to embed the watermark in the reference image. Here fuzzy logic is used to find the alpha value that is used to embed the watermark. Watermark embedding is based on DWT and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). After decomposing the cover image into four bands, SVD is applied to one of the frequency bands, and embed the same watermark data by modifying the singular values. Attacks are also performed on watermarked image. Quantitative measures like PSNR, NCC are also calculated to test the watermarked image and also extracted watermarks with and without attacks


  • David J. Coumou, Athimoottil Mathew, A fuzzy logic approach to digital image watermarking, Rochester Institute of technology, 2000.
  • Bhatnagar, Gaurav, and Balasubramanian Raman. "A new robust reference watermarking scheme based on DWT-SVD. " Computer Standards & Interfaces31. 5 (2009): 1002-1013.
  • J. L. Liu, D. C. Lou, M. C. Chang, H. K. Tso, A robust watermarking scheme using self reference image, Computer standards and interfaces 28 (2006) 356-367.
  • S. Joo, Y. Suh, J. Shin, H. Kitkuchi, A new robust watermarking embedding into wavelet DC components, ETRI Journal 24 (5) (2002) 401-404.
  • T. Sridevi etal," Secure Watermarking based on svd and wavelets", ICGST International Journal on graphics,vision and Image processing, Volume 10,IssueV,Dcember 2010,pp 63-69.
  • A. G. Bors, I. Pitas, "Image watermarking using DCT domain constraints", Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, vol. 3, 1996, pp. 231–234.
  • R. G. V. Schyndle, A. Z. Tirkel, C. F. Osbrone, "A digital watermark", Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, vol. 2, 1994, pp. 86–90.
  • D. Kundur, D. Hatzinakos, Towards robust logo watermarking using multiresolution image fusion, IEEE Transcations on Multimedia 6 (2004) 185– 197.
  • J. Ohnishi, K. Matsui, "Embedding a seal in to a picture under orthogonal wavelet Transform", Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Computing system, 1996, pp. 514–521, IEEE, Hiroshima, Japan.
  • P. Meerwald, A. Uhl, "A survey on wavelet domain watermarking algorithms", Proceedings of SPIE, Electronic Imaging, Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents III, vol. 4314, 2001, pp. 505–516, SPIE, CA, USA.
  • M. Barni, F. Bartolini, A. Piva, Improved wavelet based watermarking through pixel wise masking, IEEE Transcations on Image Processing 10 (2001) 783–791.
  • Z. Dawei, C. Guanrong, L. Wenbo, A chaos based robust wavelet domain watermarking algorithm, Chaos, Solitons, and Fractals 22 (2004) 47–54.